Roberto Fiore (born 15 April 1959 in Rome), a self-identified fascist,1 is an Italian politician and a founding member of the Italian Third Positionist Terza Posizione movement. He is the leader of the Italian neofascist party Forza Nuova.
Goodbye, Mr Bannon
We don’t want Americans that tell us what to do in Europe.
We don’t want foundations and parties with HQ in Israel to dictate our foreign policy.
We don’t want old capitalist theories to make our peoples poorer.
We don’t want prolife nice theories and then a reality of abortion at the ninth month.
Time to say goodbye, Mr Bannon.
Fiore was once closely allied with the Ukrainian far-right Svoboda party, but following the beginning of the War in Donbass, Forza Nuova and Fiore "made a considerable shift to the pro-Russian camp."3
In 1976, Fiore co-founded the group Lotta Studentesca in the bookshop of Walter Spedicato, together with Giuseppe Dimitri and Gabriele Adinolfi.4 In 1978 Lotta Studentesca became Terza Posizione. In 1980, Fiore and Massimo Morsello escaped to London, after arrest warrants were out against them in connection with the Bologna bombing in 1980, committed by sympathizers of the Ordine Nuovo. The two were considered unrelated to the massacre, although they belonged, according to the judiciary, to the fascist terror group Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari ("Armed Revolutionary Nuclei").5 They both managed to stay in England for 20 years, receiving political refugee status during the first government led by Margaret Thatcher.
Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke writes about Fiore's influence at that time on the British National Front in Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity:6
In late 1980, a cell of Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionarice (NAR) fugitives arrived in London, where they made contact with Britain’s far-right National Front (NF). Roberto Fiore, a close associate of the imprisoned Mario Tuti; Massimo Morsello and his wife Marinella Rita; and Amadeo de Francisci and Stefano Tiraboschi were all subsequently convicted in absentia by a Rome court for NAR terrorist offenses involving armed conspiracy. Inspired by Evola and Codreanu, Roberto Fiore would have a catalytic influence on the new ideological direction of the NF. After its dramatic increases in membership and success at the polls in the strife-torn 1970s, the NF had seen its sup- port draining to the new Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, which vigorously addressed industrial unrest, rising crime and weak immigration control. This weakening and isolation of the NF had a radicalizing effect on its leaders and their ideology. A younger generation of university-educated NF activists, represented by Nick Griffin, Derek Holland and Patrick Harrington, felt that the NF’s soggy mixture of reaction, concern over law and order and the immigrant threat to jobs and homes lacked any theoretical sophistication. While the older NF leaders John Tyndall and Martin Webster were tainted by British neo-Nazism, the young men embraced the ideals of Italian neo-fascism.7
Roberto Fiore and his colleagues helped the NF forge a new militant elitist philosophy that foreswore electoral strategies in favor of educating and training a fanatical, quasi-religious “New Man” in select cadres for a national revolution. By 1983, this group—led by Griffin, Holland and Harrington—had broken away to form the NF “Political Soldier” faction. Cadres similar to Iron Guard legionary “nests” became the organizational unit, and training seminars were held at the Hampshire country house of Rosine de Bounevialle, the publisher of the Catholic anti-Semitic magazine Candour, originally founded by A. K. Chesterton. Backed by Fiore, the “Political Soldiers” published a new journal, Rising (1982–85), which emphasized the spiritual and cultural basis of a new social order. A revival of the countryside and a return to feudal values reflected Codreanu’s prewar attack on the decadence and materialism of urban life; nationalist communes were planned in upland areas of Britain. Archaic woodcut art juxtaposed knights and rural idylls with consumerism and modernity. Evola’s most militant tract was discussed, especially his call for a “Great Holy War” fought for personal spiritual renewal paralleling the physical “Little Holy War” on a material plane against national or ideological enemies. Like the hero of the Bhagavad Gita, Christian Crusaders, ancient Norse warriors and Roman legionaries were all united in the Aryan struggle for self-transformation and a nobler reality. Some indication of this struggle was given in a paean to Franco Freda, Italy’s most notorious neo-fascist terrorist.89
In 1985, Fiore was sentenced in absentia in Italy for being a member of the political wing of the Armed Revolutionary Nuclei. The ARN's armed wing was implicated in the Bologna bombing of 1980, which killed 85 people.1
When Fiore and Massimo Morsello fled Italy after the Bologna bombings he went to England, where he got involved with the International Third Position of which he became one of the most important members.
With Morsello he founded the travel agency "Easy London," which seems to have made some substantial profits. According to Metapedia (the far-right Wikipedia), he helped "various patriotic organizations in Italy."10 In London, he was also in touch with Nick Griffin and Troy Southgate.
In 1995, Fiore registered the Saint George Educational Trust.1
Like the St Michael trust, Saint George's stated objective is "to advance the Catholic religion in communion with the canonically elected pope". Both charities raise money through charity shops. Projects supported by St Michael include a commune in Spain for European nationalists. The latest St Michael accounts show an income of £43,349. It sent £7,000 to the Spanish village in 1997. Saint George's income last year was £13,000.The Spanish village is prominently promoted in publications and on websites of the International Third Position, a splinter group from the National Front formed in the late 1980s. The site has links to a number of white supremacist and paramilitary internet pages, including the American White Pride Network.The ITP, through its journal, Final Conflict, and its publishing house, the Legionary Press, based in the New Forest, distributes fascist and anti-semitic literature and calls for repatriation of black people.Posters on offer in Final Conflict include pictures of Hitler, Mussolini and the Waffen SS.1
In November 1997 an investigation began into the Saint George Educational Trust and the Trust of St Michael the Archangel, after allegations that they were fronts for far right nationalist activities in Britain and Europe.1
In 1997, due to an amnesty, Roberto Fiore and Massimo Morsello could return to Italy, and went out the far-right Forza Nuova party. Forza Nuova, founded in September 1997, has repeatedly been criticized for its radical positions and for acts of violence amongst its adherents. It was also the protagonist of political campaigns opposed to same-sex marriage and immigration to Italy.
In 2000 Fiore published together with Gabriele Adinolfi Noi Terza Posizione ("Our Third Position"), and thus was reviving their common Terza Posizione project of the mid-1970s.
According to Political Capital:
In November 2013 the head of the British National Party (BNP) Nick Griffin, the head of New Force, Roberto Fiore and the spokesperson for Greek Golden Dawn, Ilias P. Kasidiaris were on a visit to Moscow and held a joint news conference. The "guest list" is given special significance by the constellation of their party alliances. The New Force has close ties to Golden Dawn through the European National Front (FNE), established in 2004 by far-right parties and presided over by Fiore. On the other hand, BNP is part of the Jobbik-led Alliance of European National Movements (AENM), where the French National Front was a former member.11
In 2014, a phone between Fiore and Alessio Constantini was intercepted in the course of the inquiry by the Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale (ROS) into the 2014 immigrant hunt.12 It revealed that the two agreed that Stefano Delle Chiaie was behind a rapprochement of the Lega (then still Lega Nord) and CasaPound. Constantini remarks on a meeting between Delle Chaie and Fiore in Rome. It is unclear whether this meeting was the same as in Anzio (near Rome), mentioned by Saverio Ferrari in a 2016 article.13
Unaware of being intercepted by the Carabinieri of the ROS, Fiore, on 26 September 2014, spoke freely with Alessio Costantini, Roman head of FN [Forza Nuova].
"Casapound no longer stands for what it stood for four years ago,” he begins. Then he adds: "If Maurizio Boccacci (the leader of Militia Italia, historical leader of the extreme right of the Castelli Romani, ed.) moves, he moves because a whole series of situations are moving. And this is secret service stuff. This is the state. It's the secret services, given the fact that Boccacci receives a paycheck, people can confirm it to you that...". Shortly before Costantini had updated Fiore on the latest news: "They are all back together with Delle Chiaie, Giuliano (Castellino, ed), Boccacci, and form a group of shit.”
An alliance that Fiore sees as smoke in the eyes, to the point of dwelling in predictions about the future of the black rivals of CasaPound: "Now Simone Di Stefano (secretary of CP, ed.) has started to play the spokesman of Borghezio (Lega, ed.). It's not a great place for the head of the movement. They put themselves in a situation of vassalage", Fiore says and then explains to his interlocutor that "already in certain sections of CasaPound, for example in Abruzzo, there is the shit of the League". This - however, according to Fiore - is positive. Evidently hoping that this alliance will end up weakening them and benefiting Forza Nuova.
Then there is the part about Delle Chiaie. Costantini reports of a meeting in Rome between the former leader of the Avanguardia Nazionale and Borghezio: "Delle Chiaie is always in the shadows, obviously he can never be a front man. But he's the one who has contacts in Rome and can make a particular situation happen in Rome between the various groups." The two then move on to discuss strategies, agreeing that the wind should be "favorable" to those who "stay free" in the extreme right. An advantage that, however, requires prudence: "I know personally that in the moment in which you remain alone you are crushed, and we at this time do not yet have the defences to counter ... " . In short: the Lega-CasaPound axis is worrying them, but the two leaders of Forza Nuova agree that they do not have the strength to swing the case, limiting themselves to devising a wait-and-see strategy, assessing the evolution of events."
In 2015, the European parliamentary group Alliance for Peace and Freedom was founded, which was joined by several radical far-right parties, whose president and chairman became Roberto Fiore. The APF can be considered a sibling of the “European National Front” (2004-2009). APF members are i.a. from the British Unity Party, Forza Nuova, NPD, Democracia Nacional and until 2017 Golden Dawn.
The APF maintains contacts with the former leader of the French Front National, Jean-Marie Le Pen, who joined the group in March 2018. That the APF has established tangible contacts with the Russian far-right as well, shows a meeting of representatives in St. Petersburg in 2016:14
On March 22 the Russian International Conservative Forum was held in St. Petersburg, which brought together representatives of mostly marginal Russian and European ultranationalist and neo-Nazi groups. The participants included representatives of Greece’s Golden Dawn, Italy’s New Force, Bulgaria’s Ataka, the MEP Udo Voigt, the ex-leader of the National Democratic Party of Germany; and Nick Griffin, ex-leader of the British National Party, among others. Most of the groups are represented in the Alliance for Peace and Freedom, which held its first congress in February in the European Parliament. On the Russian side were representatives of nationalist and monarchist circles, as well as groups of experts. The forum was organised by the nationalist Rodina party, although its current leadership was not present at the meeting, and nor was its founder and political patron, the deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin. No official representatives of the Russian government participated in the forum, and the Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov declined to comment.
Most of the parties participating in the APF, notably the British Unity Party, NPD, Forza Nuova, Democracia Nacional and Golden Dawn, have been associated with terrorist activities in the past.
- 1. a. b. c. d. e. David Pallister, "Neo-fascist clear to resume charity role," The Guardian, 6 August 1999, https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1999/aug/06/davidpallister.
- 2. Tweet by Roberto Fiore, 21 March 2019, https://twitter.com/RobertoFioreFN/status/1108990003827355648.
- 3. Giovanni Savino, "From Evola to Dugin: The Neo-Eurasianist Connection in Italy" in Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe–Russia Relationship (ed. Marlene Laruelle), Lexington Books, 2015, p. 115.
- 4. "Note Biografiche," Gabriele Adinolfi, http://www.gabrieleadinolfi.it/biograf.html.
- 5. https://web.archive.org/web/20121116080425/http://www.perimetro.com/downloads/Massimo%20Morsello%20-%20Frammenti%20di%20cuore.pdf
- 6. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity, New York University Press, 2000, pp. 68-69.
- 7. Roger Eatwell, “The Esoteric Ideology of the National Front in the 1980s,” in The Failure of British Fascism: The Far Right and the Fight for Political Recognition, edited by Mike Cronin (Basingstoke, U.K.: Macmillan, 1996), pp. 99–117.
- 8. Evola: The Aryan Doctrine of Fight and Victory,” Rising, No. 3 (1983), p. 4; “Freda: A Martyr for Our Cause,” Rising, No. 4 (1983), p. 3.
- 9. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity, New York University Press, 2000, pp. 68-69
- 10. "Roberto Fiore," Metapedia, accessed 19 March 2019, https://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Roberto_Fiore.
- 11. "The Russian Connection," Political Capital Policy Research and Consulting Institute, March 14, 2014, p. 5, http://www.riskandforecast.com/useruploads/files/pc_flash_report_russian_connection.pdf.
- 12. Giuseppe Scarpa, "Roma, Fiore: 'Servizi dietro Militia. Delle Chiaie regista dell'asse CasaPound-Lega'," La Repubblica, 13 December 2017, https://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2017/12/13/news/fiore_servizi_dietro_militia_casapound_e_con_la_lega_ci_ha_lavorato_delle_chiaie_-183971971/.
- 13. Saverio Ferrari, "Avanguardia Nazionale, ritorno in nero," Contropiano, 8 July 2016, http://contropiano.org/news/politica-news/2016/07/10/avanguardia-nazionale-ritorno-nero-081511.
- 14. https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2015-03-25/kremlin-hosts-european-extreme-right