Eberhard Taubert (11 May 1907 in Kassel – 2 November 1976 in Cologne) was a lawyer and anti-Semitic Nazi propagandist. He joined the Nazi party in 1931, and quickly became involved in both anti-Communist and anti-Jewish propaganda. From 1933 to 1945 he worked as a high official in the Propagandaministerium under Joseph Goebbels.
His nickname in Nazi circles was Dr. Anti. He worked in 1940 on the script for the anti-Semitic propaganda film Der ewige Jude (English: The Eternal Jew) and was responsible for the law requiring Jews to wear the yellow badge (Judenstern). His rhetorical ability made him a wanted propagandist, not only during the NS regime. His agitative style used in the Nazi propaganda was reused after the war to boost the Western fear of communism. For this mission he worked with secret services (e.g. CIC, CIA, BND), and right-wing politicians and journals.
Eberhard Taubert was the son of a paramedic officer, and spent his youth in Rathenow. He then studied law in Kiel, Berlin and Heidelberg and was awarded a PhD in law on February 19, 1931, in Heidelberg with a thesis on "The Law of the Hunting Lease in Prussia."
Taubert joined the NSDAP on November 1, 1931 (membership number 712.249). At the same time he joined the SA, where he held the rank of SA-Sturmführer on the staff of the SA group Berlin-Brandenburg. At the beginning of 1932 Taubert became head of the legal department of the Gau leadership of "Greater Berlin" (Großberlin). At the same time, he also became advisor on "anti-Bolshevism" to then Gauleiter of Greater Berlin, Joseph Goebbels.
With the founding of the Reich Ministry of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda on March 13, 1933, Taubert took over as head of the "Department of General Domestic Policy," in which he was responsible for "opposing world views," "church affairs" and "Bolshevism at home and abroad."1 According to his own statements, in the same year he founded the "General Association of German Anti-Communist Associations" (Gesamtverband Deutscher antikommunistischer Vereinigungen) also known as Anti-Komintern, which was financed by the Propaganda Ministry. From August 1934 onward, Taubert took over the management of the Anti-Komintern publishing house ("Nibelungen-Verlag GmbH"), and was also appointed head of the Anti-Komintern department in the Propaganda Ministry, which had been established in October 1933. From 1939 onward, Taubert was also responsible for the "Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question,"2 which was later renamed "Anti-Semitic Action."3
In Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry, Taubert made a steep career. He was first promoted to the position of Regierungsrat ("Government Advisor") in 1936, then, in 1938, he was prematurely appointed to Oberregierungsrat ("Superior Government Advisor) by Hitler himself, and in 1942, he finally became Ministerialdirektor ("Ministerial Director"). His work in the early 1930s concentrated primarily on the management of a department entitled "Active Propaganda against the Jews," in addition to his responsibility for the Anti-Komintern, which in practice meant the ultimate supervision of the propaganda activities of the Ministry and its subordinate agencies in regard to Jews, Communists and intellectuals.4 In 1937 Taubert issued the official guidelines for the Ministry of Press, Film and Broadcasting and other propaganda agencies, in which the content, objectives and form of their activities were prescribed and explained in detail. In 1942 he took over the management of the "Department East" (Generalreferat Ostraum) in the Ministry of Propaganda. This department, in which about 450 officials were under his control, was entrusted with the management of all propaganda offices in the occupied eastern territories. At the beginning of 1943, the "Department East" comprised 93 permanent employees, and another 350 in the so-called "Vineta" organization (Vineta Propagandadienst Ostraum e. V.),5 "which was the code name for the section of the Propaganda Ministry dealing with anti-Soviet propaganda."6
Vineta was established in Berlin in spring 1941 as a central interpreting and translating service for all Eastern languages (including many Caucasian languages). Besides print media and films, the propaganda organization produced radio broadcasts in 16 Eastern languages. In addition to active propaganda in the front zones, Vineta was also involved in propaganda work among Eastern workers, the approximately 1.2 million Eastern volunteers of the armed forces and the approximately 1 million Eastern collaborators. In January 1944, with 932 employees the department had its peak, and its activities, including radio broadcasts, continued until early April 1945.7
Taubert's official contact in the Foreign Office in all matters related to the Eastern territories was the later Federal Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger.
The three key people for operations against Russia were Dr. Taubert, Head of the "Vienta" [Vineta], a Goebbels-Rosenberg organization for Ostpropaganda ["propaganda in the east"]; Frau Melitta Weidemann [Wiedemann], a Ukrainian by birth, who was in close touch with the Vlassov movement and who organized the socalled "Bodenstellen" in Russia ("Bodenstellen" could be translated as "ground points"); and Herr Pannvitz [Pannwitz], a former commissar of the Gestapo, charged with subversive activity in Russia. Most of these ground points were controlled by Col. Skorzeny and it is believed that an organization exists today among German technicians, scientists and other key figures who were brought to Russia after the war. Col. Skorzeny supposedly has knowledge of this organization and might even have an active part in it. The three individuals named above are living covertly and their whereabouts will be determined in the near future.
Taubert was the author of the screenplay for the anti-Semitic propaganda film Der ewige Jude ("The Eternal Jew - A film about the problem of world Jewry") (Director: Fritz Hippler, 1940). This film was intended to foment hate against jews in the population. In special screenings, the work was shown specifically to SS personnel, who were to be deployed in task forces or as guards in concentration camps.9 While showing footage from Eastern European ghettos, Jews were alternately equated with rats and blowflies in the film. For example, in one of Taubert's letter boards, it says: "The rats, as parasites, accompany humanity from the beginnings. They are deceitful, cowardly and cruel. Among the animals they represent the element of insidious, deceitful decomposition. Nothing but the Jews among men." In Nazi circles, Taubert was therefore also referred to as "Rat Taubert" to distinguish him from the "Wewelsburg Taubert", the commander of the SS training facility at Wewelsburg. The political combat term "rats and blowflies" was later used in this combination by the CSU politician Franz Josef Strauß, who was advised by Taubert; and also by Strauß' protégé, Edmund Stoiber, who had used the phrase in February 1980 to refer to a group of editors of the public broadcaster Süddeutscher Rundfunk in Stuttgart). For Taubert, anti-Semitism and anti-Communism were inseparably linked, since "Bolshevism was the work and weapon of Judaism" (cf. "Jewish Bolshevism").10 Joseph Goebbels praised Taubert on October 3, 1935, as a "sympathetic fanatic." In 1940, Taubert was commissioned by Goebbels as NS special leader responsible for propaganda in occupied Norway.11
Tauber had worked as director of the Propaganda Ministry's publishing house "Nibelungen-Verlag," since its inception in 1934 (headquarters: Berlin and Leipzig). Between 1938 and 1944, this publishing house was largely responsible for the distribution of anti-Communist and anti-Jewish books, such as "The Criminal Jew" (Der Jude als Verbrecher).12 The bulk of the Nibelungen books consisted of memories of Russian and German communists who described their dssappointing experiences in the Soviet Union.13 In 1936, Taubert also founded the journal Contra-Komintern (editor-in-chief: Melitta Wiedemann).
Parallel to his activities in the Ministry of Propaganda, Taubert was an observer at the newly established People's Court from 1934.13 From 1938 he was a judge in the 1st Senate of the People's Court and was involved in death sentences against resistance fighters.14 Among other things, he was involved in the death sentence against Maurice Bavaud on December 18, 1939,15 on November 27, 1942 in the death sentence against Helmuth Klotz16 and on January 11, 1943 in the death sentence against Marcel Gerbohay.17
After the end of the war in 1945, Taubert went into hiding, most likely with the help of Western intelligence,18 and appeared in the guise of various pseudonyms. A Spiegel article from 1950 lists a bunch of them19:
To escape his pursuers, he appeared under a plethora of pseudonyms. By using a "facet system," he explains, showing off his knowledge of Abwehr terminology. "It is based on the principle of telling one pseudonym to one group of people ... while telling the other group the next pseudonym, and so on. If it then turns out that discretion is not maintained in one of these groups, one gives up that pseudonym and avoids this circle. It is then also relatively easy to discover the leak." Thus, it can happen that Taubert's business friends from agent circles call his apartment and hear from the landlady the news of the death of "Dr. Richter". If the good-natured landlady has a favorable impression of the caller ... she may recommend to call another number and ask for Mr. Lehmann. In due course, Dr. Becker rose from Lehmann's ashes, and Dr. Becker became Mr. Simon, and Mr. Simon became Mr. Menzel, and Mr. Menzel finally the journalist Dr. Erwin Kohl. The Kohl pseudonym has survived the longest, until today.
Whom "Dr. Erwin Kohl" was working for in the immediate postwar period remains difficult to ascertain. According to Patrick Major, Taubert was approached by the British Secret Service in 1946 and was working for the US Secret Service CIC in 1947.20 It is known that he lived partly in Hamburg,21 partly outside of Germany, in South Africa and Iran, where he advised the rulers there in the use of "active propaganda," until he returned from Iran to the Federal Republic in 1950.22
According to Stuart Christie, when Taubert returned from Iran23
... to Germany in 1950 ... he was recruited into the special services section of the Gehlen organisation (BND). He was also appointed chairman of the CIA backed "National Association for Peace and Freedom."
Abbas Milani states that after the war Taubert received a monthly salary of $3,000 from the German Christian Democratic Party, for providing incriminating material on German communists.24
Taubert was the founder and owner of the Markus-Verlag Cologne in 1955.25
People's League for Peace and Freedom
Tauber had already in 1947 "proposed the blueprint" for the "People's League for Peace and Freedom" the (Volksbund für Frieden und Freiheit, VFF) to the US occupation in Germany,26 and as "Erwin Kohl," he became one of the VFF's founders in 1950. The VFF saw itself as "the central anti-communist organization of the Federal Republic,"27 and was supported28 and subsidized by the Federal Ministry for Pan-German Affairs (the forerunner of the Federal Ministry for Inner-German Relations).29 Author of a detailed study on the VFF, Mathias Friedel, regards the Volksbund as a replica of the Anti-Komintern.30
Taubert was the second chairman of the VFF until August 24, 1955. After the public disclosure of his Nazi involvement, in particular his participation in death sentences of the People's Court, he had to resign. One week before his resignation, Ewert von Dellingshausen, the responsible officer in the "Ministry for All-German Affairs," who supervised and financially controlled the activities of the VFF, said in an interview: "I can assure you, the Ministry will not draw any such conclusions towards Taubert; because Taubert is a man we need and he is also indispensable. (...) Taubert has experience."31
Giles Scott-Smith indicates that Taubert played a key role in a precursor formation of Interdoc, a transnational "clearing house" for anti-communist psychological warfare strategies with links to NATO.32
In 1953, the British secret service counted Taubert among the members of the so-called "Naumann circle" (Naumann-Kreis)33 of Werner Naumann, former state secretary in Joseph Goebbel's Propaganda Ministry.34 Following Germany's defeat, Naumann lived under an assumed name for five years and reemerged after a 1950 amnesty, when he sought to establish contact with former Nazi big wigs, including Hans-Ulrich Rudel, Ernst Achenbach, Arthur Axmann, Otto Skorzeny and many others,35 and started major efforts to drum up those still loyal to the Nazi cause in order to plan a return to power. According to Beate Baldow, it was actually Tauber, who established the contact between Naumann, Skorzeny, and Rudel.36 Baldow described Naumann’s approach as follows:37
Based on the assumption that the ideas of the “Third Reich” would be still an ideological basis among a large part of the population and only would have to be activated at an appropriate time, Naumann began to prepare a seizure of power in 1957. The Naumann sympathizers, who were placed … everywhere in business, politics and culture, were linked together through a clever system of a so called “inner circle” and “outer circle.” Together they counteracted the fragmentation of the extreme right.
Members of this "Naumann Circle" infiltrated the Free Democrats Party for a period of about two years. Naumann was arrested by the British Army on January 16, 1953, for being the leader of a Neo-Nazi group that attempted to infiltrate West German political parties.38
Franz Josef Strauß
After 1957, Taubert worked in South America, Iran, Lebanon, Egypt and South Africa, and from 1958 onwards as advisor of then German Defense Minister Franz Josef Strauß. According to Stuart Christie, Taubert, as a lawyer, was instrumental in obfuscating the channels that provided funds to Franz Josef Strauß23:
Under cover of the All-German Ministry, Taubert was an adviser to Franz Josef Strauß, Minister of Defence, and to NATO on "problems of psychological warfare." For over twenty years Taubert was the main source of finance to the neo-Nazi and extreme right groups in Europe, acting as a conduit for money from businesses and foundations such as the Staats- und Wirtschaftspolitische Gesellschaft e.v. in Cologne and Pelugan AG of Frankenthal (in 1977 this company was run by former consul Dr. Fritz Ries, one of the many straw men through whom funds are channelled to Franz Josef Strauß).
In 1958, Franz Josef Strauß (Minister of Defence from 1956 to 1961) recruited Tauber as a consultant for his newly established department "Psychological Warfare" (Psychologische Kampfführung).39 In Bonn, Taubert maintained a liaison office that worked for the NATO in matters of psychological defence (PSV).40
From a brochure on antisemitism in Germany entitled "The water becomes dirtier and dirtier" (1960).
Taubert continued to be a defense expert for US intelligence, and in 1959 he worked for the Iranian secret service (SAVAK),41 as well as other Middle Eastern intelligence services. Under the pseudonym of Dr. Marcel Wallensdorfer, Taubert ran a press service from August 1961 onward with the title "Anti-Comintern Service" (Anti-Komintern-Dienst).42 According to Stuart Christie, citing the journalist Patrice Chairoff, "Taubert was also one of the 'respected correspondents' of the Greek KYP through his 'World Service' "press agency."23
After the Social Democratic-Liberal Brandt government took office in 1969, Taubert worked with right-wing journalists such as Hugo Wellems towards the overthrow of the government in favor of a new government led by the CDU. In addition, he was active against the "Extra-parliamentary Opposition" (Außerparlamentarische Opposition, APO).
Combat Association of German Soldiers
According to Stuart Christie, Taubert was a co-founder of the "Combat Association of German Soldiers" (Kampfbund Deutscher Soldaten, KDS), a militant and revisionist43 neo-Nazi group that formed a considerable part of the mercenary terrorist organization Aginter Press44:
In the late sixties ... it is estimated that about 60 per cent of Aginter personnel were recruited from the ranks of the OAS, while the remainder were recruited from neo-Nazi organisations in Western Europe such as the Frankfurt based Kampfbund Deutscher Soldaten run by another ex-Goebbels man and partner of "[Gerhard Hartmut] von Schubert" in Paladin, Dr. Eberhardt Taubert ...
Aginter, supported by various Western secret services, trained its members in covert action techniques,45 including bombings, silent assassinations, subversion techniques, clandestine communication, infiltration and counter-insurgency, and was involved in the execution of several false-flag terror attacks in Italy. Aginter has also carried out operations against domestic opposition for various right-wing authoritarian governments, including Salazar's Portugal, Francoist Spain and the Greek Regime of the Colonels after the 1967 putsch.
The link between Aginter Press and the KDS is a likely one, given that financial support for Aginter Press has come from the highest echelon of Germany's center-right Christian Social Union (CSU). Documents unearthed by the renowned German journalists Egmont Koch and Oliver Schröm during their investigation for a documentary on false-flag attacks in Italy for the public broadcaster ZDF, show close contacts of Aginter Press agents to Marcel Hepp, back then right-hand man of chairman of the CSU, Franz Josef Strauß. One Aginter agent was even in direct contact with Strauß. These documents contain a long list of cover names of ominous German sponsors under the headline “Industry."46 According to Koch and Schröm, Strauß supported his political friends in Spain and Italy repeatedly with cash. His close employee, Dieter Huber, was serving as money courier, but sometimes Strauß handed over the money personally. For his payments up to 100.000 Deutsche Mark, the chairman of the CSU even obtained donation receipts.46
Activate subtitles (CC button) to see English translation. A transcript of the English translation is available here.
From 1970 onwards, Taubert was employed by several German industrialists. As head of the legal department of the Pegulan factory in Frankenthal, Taubert advised its chairman Fritz Ries,18 "one of the straw men through whom funds are channeled to Franz Josef Strauß," according to Stuart Christie.23
After 1972 Taubert fell seriously ill and withdrew from public activities to a large extent. In his last years, Taubert made contact with openly right-wing extremist circles, such as Manfred Roeder.47
He died on 2 November 1976 as a result of a traffic accident.
- Ludwig Bernard, "La propagande anticommuniste en Allemagne fédérale," Le "VFF," pendant allemand de "Paix et Liberté?," in Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire, 2003/4, Nr. 80, 33-42.
- Stuart Christie, Stefano delle Chiaie: Portrait of a black terrorist (Anarchy Magazine, 1984), https://libcom.org/files/Stefano-Delle-Chiaie.pdf.
- Mathias Friedel, Der Volksbund für Frieden und Freiheit (VFF) – eine Teiluntersuchung über westdeutsche antikommunistische Propaganda im Kalten Krieg und deren Wurzeln im Nationalsozialismus (St. Augustin: Gardez!, 2001).
- Klaus Körner, "Eberhard Taubert und der Nibelungen-Verlag," in Berlinische Monatsschrift 8/1997 beim Luisenstädtischen Bildungsverein, https://berlingeschichte.de/bms/bmstxt97/9712proh.htm.
- 1. Birgit Aschmann, "Treue Freunde…?" – Westdeutschland und Spanien, 1945 bis 1963 (F. Steiner, 1999), 100.
- 2. Hans-Adolf Jacobsen, Nationalsozialistische Aussenpolitik, 1933–1938 (A. Metzner, 1968), 715.
- 3. Jeffrey Herf, The Jewish Enemy. Nazi propaganda during World War II and the Holocaust (Harvard UP, 2006), 27.
- 4. Bernt Engelmann and Lothar Menne, Auf gut Deutsch (Bertelsmann, 1981), 132.
- 5. Andreas Zellhuber, "Unsere Verwaltung treibt einer Katastrophe zu …" Das Reichsministerium für die besetzten Ostgebiete und die deutsche Besatzungsherrschaft in der Sowjetunion 1941–1945 (München: Vögel, 2006), 58.
- 6. Letter from Henry Newton to Colonel Fritzsche, 23 April 1947, among Gerhard von Mende's CIA file, https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/519697e8993294098d50c4a5.
- 7. "Propagandatruppen des Heeres," Lexikon der Wehrmacht, www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Gliederungen/Propaganda/Propaganda.htmwww.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Gliederungen/Propaganda/Propaganda.htm.
- 8. "Subject: Interrogation of Dr. Hans Fritzsche, Conducted on 6 and 7 January 1949, in the Hospital of the Internment Camp at Langwasser Near Nurnberg," Declassified CIA file, January 17, 1949, https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/document/5197c261993294098d50d937.
- 9. Bernt Engelmann, Das Neue Schwarzbuch: Franz Josef Strauß (Kiepenheuer & Witsch: 1980), 176ff.
- 10. "Das Weltjudentum als Ausgangspunkt der bolschewistischen Weltgefahr," in Zeitschrift für Politik (Berlin), Volume 29, 1939, 246.
- 11. Klaus Körner, "Eberhard Taubert und der Nibelungen-Verlag," in Berlinische Monatsschrift 8/1997 beim Luisenstädtischen Bildungsverein, 48, https://berlingeschichte.de/bms/bmstxt97/9712proh.htm.
- 12. Francis G. Gentry, The Nibelungen Tradition: An Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2002), 312.
- 13. a. b. Körner, "Eberhard Taubert," 45.
- 14. Bernt Engelmann, Schwarzbuch Helmut Kohl: Wie alles begann (Göttingen: Gerhard Steidl), 39.
- 15. Klaus Pokatzky, "'Er wird geköpft,'" Die Zeit, Nr. 21/1991, https://www.zeit.de/1991/21/er-wird-gekoepft.
- 16. Herbert Linder, Von der NSDAP zur SPD. Der politische Lebensweg des Dr. Helmuth Klotz (1894–1943) (= Karlsruher Beiträge zur Geschichte des Nationalsozialismus. Band 3) (Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz, 1998), 325.
- 17. Klaus Urner, Der Schweizer Hitler-Attentäter (Huber Verlag, 1980), 167.
- 18. a. b. Bernt Engelmann, Schwarzbuch Helmut Kohl oder: Wie man einen Staat ruiniert (Göttingen: Steidl, 1998), 39.
- 19. "Antikomintern: Taube nagt am Kohlstrunk," Der Spiegel, October 18, 1950, https://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-44450838.html.
- 20. Patrick Major, The Death of the KPD: Communism and Anti-Communism in West Germany, 1945-1956 (Oxford University Press, 1997), 269: "«Dr. Anti» already familiar as the inspiration behind the Nazi Antikomintern, had been approached in spring 1946 by British intelligence for information on Communist infiltration techniques, but in 1947 found employment with the Americans in CIC."
- 21. Bernard Ludwig, La Propagande Anticommuniste en Allemagne Fédérale. Vingtième Siècle. Revue d’histoire, Volum 80, October–December 2003, 35.
- 22. Michael R. Lang and Henryk M. Broder, Fremd im eigenen Land: Juden in der Bundesrepublik (Frankfurt a. M.: Fischer, 1979), 25.
- 23. a. b. c. d. Stuart Christie, Stefano delle Chiaie: Portrait of a black terrorist (Anarchy Magazine, 1984), 40, https://libcom.org/files/Stefano-Delle-Chiaie.pdf.
- 24. Abbas Milani, The Shah (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 231.
- 25. Mathias Friedel, Der Volksbund für Frieden und Freiheit (VFF). Eine Teiluntersuchung über westdeutsche antikommunistische Propaganda im Kalten Krieg und deren Wurzeln im Nationalsozialismus (St. Augustin: Gardez!, 2001), 150.
- 26. Giles Scott-Smith, Western Anti-Communism and the Interdoc Network (London: Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series, 2012), 22.
- 27. Kai-Uwe Merz, Kalter Krieg als Antikommunistischer Widerstand (R. Oldenbourg, 1987), 147.
- 28. "Gudrun Hentges im Interview mit Felix Klopotek," Kölner Stadtrevue, 12/2002, p. 33.
- 29. In an interview on 21 November 1969, the managing chairman H. Hämmerle stated the budget from 1951 to 1956 was about 700,000 DM annually, from 1957 to 1967 about 1.1 million DM annually.
- 30. Mathias Friedel, Der Volksbund für Frieden und Freiheit (VFF) (St. Augustin: Gardez!, 2001). On book cover: "Denn er hatte den Antikommunismus als Profession bereits in Goebbels’ Propaganda-Ministerium betrieben, indem er dort eine Propaganda-Agentur, die „Antikomintern e. V.“, leitete, als deren Nachbildung der VFF gelten kann. Daher behandelt das Buch die Konstruktion und Umsetzung antikommunistischer Feindbilder durch den Volksbund mit Hinblick auf die Antikomintern als Vorbild.“
- 31. "Propaganda / Bonn: Es hat sich nichts geändert," Der Spiegel, August 17, 1955, https://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-31970992.html.
- 32. Giles Scott-Smith, Western Anti-Communism, 22.
- 33. Ernst Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945 (Fischer, 2005), 618.
- 34. Beate Baldow, Episode oder Gefahr? Die Naumann-Affäre (Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, PhD Thesis, 2012), 33, 152, https://refubium.fu-berlin.de/bitstream/handle/fub188/9139/Dissertation_Baldow.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
- 35. Kurt Tauber, Beyond Eagle and Swastika: German Nationalism Since 1945 (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1967), 133-135.
- 36. Baldow, Episode oder Gefahr, 119.
- 37. English abstract of Baldow, Episode oder Gefahr?, https://refubium.fu-berlin.de/handle/fub188/9139?show=full.
- 38. T. H. Tetens, The New Germany And The Old Nazis (New York: Random House, 1961), 24 ff., https://archive.org/details/TH_Tetens_The_New_Germany_And_The_Old_Nazis/page/n15.
- 39. "'Wir müssen an Mütter und Bräute ran,'" Der Spiegel, May 15, 1989, https://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-13494538.html.
- 40. Jo Angerer, "Schlacht um Herzen und Hirne“ – Die Geschichte deutscher Kriegspropaganda," in Wissenschaft und Frieden, Issue 3, 1993, p. 24.
- 41. Leo A. Müller, Gladio, das Erbe des Kalten Krieges. Der NATO-Geheimbund und seine deutschen Vorläufer (Rowohlt, 1991), 101.
- 42. "Zur Person," in CrP-Informationsdienst 9, 1961, p. 116.
- 43. Fabian Virchow, Gegen Den Zivilismus: Internationale Beziehungen und Militär in Den Politischen Konzeptionen Der Extremen Rechten (Springer, 2006), 290.
- 44. Christie, Stefano Delle Chiaie, 39-40.
- 45. Documents on Aginter Press acquired by the Stragi Commission, published by the Associazione Antimafia Rita Atria, http://www.ritaatria.it/LeStorie/IncidentieStragi/PiazzaFontana.aspx.
- 46. a. b. "Kennzeichen D: BND-Schmiergeld," documentary by Egmont Koch and Oliver Schröm, ZDF, 16 February 2000.
- 47. Jürgen Strohmaier, Manfred Roeder: Ein Brandstifter (Gaisreiter Verlag, 1982), 38.
- 48. "Mit der 'Bauernschaft' nach Helgoland," taz, August 30, 1983, p. 3.