Aymeric Chauprade is a French far-right politician who has made headlines because of his murky Russian ties, particularly to the networks of the Russian oligarchs Konstantin Malofeev and Vladimir Yakunin.
Starting in 2010, he served as adviser and "right-hand man" to Marine Le Pen, and joined the far-right Front National (FN) party in 2013. He promptly was catapulted to the head of the FN list in the 2014 European elections and was elected Member of the European Parliament in the Île-de-France constituency (including French nationals living abroad), where he remained until 2019.
At the European Parliament, he was attached to the now defunct EU parliamentary group Europe of Nations and Freedom in 2015. Then he was a non-inscrit (2015-2018). Finally, he joined the meanwhile equally defunct EU parliamentary group Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy as vice-chair (2018-2019).
In those years, Chauprade has been in avid contact with Russian reactionaries and fascists, and attended numerous notorious meetings that brought together representatives of the French and Russian far right. As of February 2019, the daughter of the spokesperson of Vladimir Putin, Dmitry Peskov, Elizaveta Peskova, was an assistant to Chauprade in the European Parliament.1
Elizaveta Peskova on Forbes Russia show in January 2020.
Chauprade left FN on November 9, 2015, in the wake of the so-called "Air Cocaine" affair, to found the ephemeral far-right party Les Français Libres in early 2016, which folded the following year.2 Ever since Chauprade has been somewhat out of the limelight, however, as "geopolitical expert," he has continued to work as a consultant for far-right organizations, state leaders and the private sector.
His name is cited in the Pandora Papers in October 2021, as the owner of two offshore companies,3 which he promptly denied. When the Swiss law firm SFM confirmed that it had checked the validity of Chauprade's passport in that context,3 Chauprade also denied that, arguing that his identity had been usurped.
Ever since the mid-1990s, Chauprade has written about 15 books in which he lays down his geopolitical hogwash, including dividing the world into 15 civilizations (i.e. Anglo-Saxon, European, Eastern European Orthodox, Latin American, Arab-Muslim, Turkish-Muslim, Asian Muslim, Iranian-Muslim, Indian, Chinese, Southeast Asian, Japanese, African, Oceanian and Jewish).7
In Chauprade's view, France and all the French-speaking countries (La Francophonie) should become an independent power in a "multiploar world," which also includes a policy of understanding with Russia. He pleads for a Europe of sovereign Nations as opposed to the centralized system of the European Union.
In his works, he frequently calls for the reaffirmation of the "Christian roots of Europe" in the face of a "violent awakening of Islam." He would later espouse the "Great Replacement" conspiracy theory by Renaud Camus.8
Chauprade is close to the arch-Catholic and monarchist Action française (AF), with which he works as an expert in geopolitics, and he is a member of the Institut d'Action française.8 He considers the book Kiel et Tangier by the anti-Semitic AF organizer Charles Maurras (1868-1952) as "one of the most important works of French geopolitical thought."8 He is also an admirer of AF's equally anti-Semitic scribbler, Jacques Bainville (1879-1936).9
In an interview with L'Homme nouveau on November 27, 2013, he explains that, in his view, the "ideological bipolarity" separating the world today is no longer that between liberalism and communism, which are "two materialisms," but that between "materialism and traditionalism"; i.e. "on the one hand those who believe that the individual is the supreme value, on the other those who think that transcendence [i.e. religion] or the common good are superior to the individual." In this context, he declares that his "commitment is clearly in the second camp," and that he intends to "take part in a project that not only raises the problem of identity in France, but also raises the problem of materialism and rehabilitates transcendence in politics."10
Aymeric Chauprade was born on January 13, 1969 in La Ferté-Bernard (Sarthe). As French nationalist, he has been proudly pointing out his Aquitani and Breton roots.11
In 1991, Chauprade received a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics.12 In 1993, he finished his Master’s Degree at the Paris Institute of Political Studies. In 1996, he did another Master’s degree in International Law at the Paris Descartes University. Finally, in 2000 or 2001, he received his doctorate from Sorbonne University, supervised by Edmond Jouve, titled "Geopolitics: the genesis of a political science, determinants and explanatory models."13 12
He mentioned his acquaintance with François Thual (b. 1944) as "a turning point," an he subsequently edited several of Thual's writings, "in particular 'Les conflicts identitaires' in 1995 which strongly contributed to the return of geopolitics in France."11 Together with Thual, "then adviser to the centrist group in the Senate," Chauprade co-authored a "Dictionary of geopolitics" in 1997.11
Chauprade taught at the Collège interarmées de défense (CID, French Joint Defense College) from 1999 onwards, where he oversaw geopolitics courses.11 That year, he signed the petition "Les Européens veulent la paix" ("Europeans want peace") to oppose NATO's military intervention in Serbia,14 initiated by the Non à la guerre collective.15
In 2001, Chauprade founded the annual journal French Review of Geopolitics (Revue française de géopolitique) published by Ellipses, of which he is the director.
He collaborated with L'Afrique réel, a racist journal founded in 1993, which has been described as supportive of "Boers-Afrikaners" in South Africa.16 The journal is published by the self-declared "Africanist," monarchist and "right-wing anarchist" Bernard Lugan. Lugan had served as a Professor at the military school of Saint-Cyr until 2015, when his class was suspended at the request of the French Defense Ministry.17
He was chair of Geopolitics of the CID from 2002 to February 2009, when he was dismissed from the Joint Defense College by then-Minister of Defense, Hervé Morin.18
From 2003 to 2009, Chauprade was a lecturer on the history of political ideas at the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. According to Chauprade's online biography, "He obtained the chair of geopolitics at the Royal Armed Forces College in Rabat [Morocco] in 2003 and never left it."11 At the time, he became vocal about his anti-American attitudes, as stated in his online biography:11
In 2003, on television sets, faced with many pro-American intellectuals who castigated President Chirac's refusal to associate France with the war against Iraq, Chauprade defended France's policy of exception. He condemns humanitarian interference, which is the mask of American interests.
During the 2004 European elections, Aymeric Chauprade supported the list led by Philippe de Villiers, at the time attached to the right-wing Gaullist Movement for France (1994-2018), of whom he is a friend.19
His online biography states that in 2005, he obtained a chair of geopolitics at the Tunis War School in Tunisia, and has remained there the following years.11
Between 2006 and 2009, Chauprade was professor of geopolitics at the Royal College of Higher Military Education of the Kingdom of Morocco as well as at the École Supérieure de Guerre in Tunis between 2006 and 2008. He maintained strong relations with Morocco afterwards, where he has traveled and taught regularly.20
According to Action Française officials, Aymeric Chauprade was "a member of the movement's steering committee in 2006 and 2007."8
After the publication of his book, Chronique du choc des civilisations ("Chronicle of the Clash of Civilizations") in 2009,21 Chauprade was accused by French journalist Jean Guisnel of espousing September 11 conspiracy theories.22 Therefor, in February 2009, he was dismissed from the CID by then-Minister of Defense, Hervé Morin.18 Chauprade filed a complaint against the decision of Morin and against the newspaper Le Point. Also a lobby effort was kicked off, including a website in support of Chauprade's cause.
On March 24, 2009, the Paris Administrative Court ruled in Chauprade's favor, revoking Morin's decision. And on June 1, 2011, the Administrative Court confirmed that ruling by emphasizing that Chauprade's suspension resulted "from an irregular procedure."23 However, the court refused Chauprade's reinstatement as temporary teacher at the School of War (École de guerre), at the Center for Strategic Aerospace Studies (Centre d'études stratégiques aérospatiales, CESA) and at the Overseas and Foreign Specialized Military School (École militaire de spécialisation de l'outre-mer et de l'étranger, Emsome).24
The episode left a considerable dent in Chauprade's career, but he kept on teaching at war colleges across the globe, while increasingly focusing on a career as independent political adviser.12 As such, from 2009 to 2012, Chauprade was adviser to Dominican President Leonel Fernández.25 Yet, throughout the early 2010s, Chauprade kept on spreading September 11 conspiracy theories, for example stating in a video that 9/11 was provoked by the American “deep state.”26
Logo of Aymeric Chauprade's realpolitik.tv website.
In 2010, Chauprade was behind the establishment of the website realpolitik.tv, which went defunct around 2017.27 That year, he became the "grey eminence" of Marine Le Pen, according to Marine Turchi of Mediapart. 28
In 2012, Marine Le Pen took over the leadership of the far-right Front National party from her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen. That year, Marine Le Pen presented Chauprade as the author of the “foreign policy” section of her 2012 presidential program.19
In 2012, he appeared on the honorary committee of the traditional procession celebrating Joan of Arc, connected to the inner core of Action Française.8
Aymeric Chauprade and Marine Le Pen
In February 2013, Chauprade organized a conference with Jacques Frémeaux and Philippe Evanno at the Sorbonne (University of Paris IV) on threats in North Africa and the Sahel zone, and Europe's overall security (Menaces en Afrique du Nord et au Sahel et sécurité globale de l'Europe), the proceedings of which were published in June 2013 by Ellipses Editions.29
Since at least 2013, Chauprade had ties to the French-Russian lobby group "France/Europe/Russia Alliance" (Alliance France-Europe-Russie - AFER). According to Nicolas Lebourg in The French Far-Right In Russia's Orbit:30
Headed by Fabrice Sorlin, a Front National candidate in the 2007 parliamentary elections, then-president of the fundamentalist group Dies Irae, and current director of the Moscow-based enterprise TSAR, the Alliance was based on the France/Russia Association that Sorlin had founded in 2009. David Mascré was also involved with the AFER and from there briefly became an FN officer before being excluded for illegally recording some party’s internal discussions in 2012. In 2013, a delegation from the AFER that included Front National sympathizers Bruno Gollnisch and Aymeric Chauprade as well as various National Catholics was received in Moscow at an international forum on traditional values. The AFER has had contact with the Russian establishment in France—the honorary consul in Biarritz attended one of its meetings—but most importantly, it has helped to influence the geopolitical line taken by French far-right groups.
In June 2013, Chauprade joined a delegation of French far-right activists to the Duma, to show their support for a series of anti-LGBTIQ laws in Russia, passed a few days prior. They had been invited by the Duma’s committee on foreign affairs and its committee on family, women and children, "whose chair, Yelena Mizulina, authored the ban on gay “propaganda” and the adoption bill," according to RightWingWatch31 :
On June 13, 2013, just days after the Russian Duma passed laws banning on gay “propaganda” and actions that “offend religious feelings,” a delegation of five French Catholic anti-gay activists –at least one with ties to the far-right Front National party — traveled to Moscow at the invitation of the Duma committee on family, women and children to discuss, among other issues, Russia’s plans to tighten its ban on adoption by same-sex couples abroad. Joining them was one of the most well-known figures in the American anti-gay movement, National Organization For Marriage president Brian Brown. [see also FR article on Brian Brown] ...
The French activists joining Brown were far-right thinker Aymeric Chauprade; activist Odile Téqui; François Legrier, president of the Mouvement Catholique des Familles; and Hugues Revel, president of Cahtoliques en Campagne.
The French delegation was led by Fabrice Sorlin, head of the far-right nationalist group Dies Irae, which is named after a liturgical poem about the Day of Judgment and has been accused of racist and anti-Semitic behavior and, according to Box Turtle Bulletin, “had been working to create autonomous militias in France under the inspiration of American white nationalist Luther Pierce’s conspiracy-laden novel The Turner Diaries.” (The group has denied the charges.) Sorlin is also a former candidate for the far-right Front National party, and chair of a group called Alliance France-Europe Russia, which is dedicated to forging a “strong connection between Europe and Russia” and uniting “the Anglo-Saxon world” against the emerging economies of China and India based, in part, on shared “Christian values.” The project of building a stronger alliance with Russia is a project held dear by the French far-right.
Besides the one at the Duma, the Russian press reported that the delegation was also attending another meeting, hosted by the St. Basil the Great Foundation, headed by the Russian oligarch and clerical fascist pundit Konstantin Malofeev. According to RightWingWatch31 :
The other event was a roundtable discussion on “Traditional Values: The Future of the European Peoples,” hosted by the St. Basil the Great Foundation – a Russian Orthodox group run by Konstantin Malofeev, the head of a private equity group and spirited anti-gay activist – and also sponsored by the Duma’s family committee, the right-wing Center for Social-Conservative Policy, and a new multi-party group of Russian MPs formed, with approval of the Russian Orthodox Church, to “protect traditional Christian values” and fight “aggressive liberalism” in reaction to Pussy Riot’s protests. Among the measures pushed by the group was the new law imposing jail time for “insulting religious feelings.”
The meeting was chaired by the Deputy Chief of Staff of the State Duma and Head of the Center for Social and Conservative Policy, Yu. E. Shuvalov. Besides Brown and Malofeev, the event was attended by aforementioned French delegation; Archpriest Dimitry Smirnov, head of the Patriarchate's Family Committee; L.A. Ryabichenko, Chairman of the Interregional Public Movement "Family, Love, Fatherland"; HE. Chetverikova, Candidate of History, Associate Professor at MGIMO; D.V. Pezhemsky, Senior Research Associate Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology. "The round table was also attended by Dmitry Volodikhin, Doctor of Historical Sciences and a member of the Union of Writers of Russia, the deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation Elena Mizulina, Sergey Gavrilov, Alexander Iltyakov, Denis Kravchenko, the vice-governor of the Pskov region and others," according to the website Russkaya Narodnaya Liniya.32
Round table "Traditional values - the future of European peoples," hosted by Konstantin Malofeev's St. Basil the Great Foundation in June 2013.
Chauprade joined the National Front in September of 2013.33 On September 14, 2013, he participated in the Front National summer school with a lecture entitled "France facing global geopolitical challenges," in which he paid tribute to Jean-Marie Le Pen.
In November 2013, the weekly Le Point revealed that Aymeric Chauprade was to head the FN list in the 2014 European elections, and that he would work as adviser to Marine Le Pen on international issues.34 These functions were made official by Marine Le Pen on January 22, 2014.35
On March 16, 2014, Chauprade responded to the invitation of the Eurasian Observatory for Democracy and Elections (EODE) directed by Luc Michel36 to be part of the observers of the referendum for the reunification of Crimea with Russia in Simferopol and Sevastopol.37 38 On the evening of March 16, in the central square of Simferopol, he commented on the result live on La Voix De La Russie.39
Member of the European Parliament
On May 25, 2014, the National Front list for the Ile-de-France and French Abroad constituency, led by Aymeric Chauprade, came in second, with 17% of the vote, three points ahead of that of the Socialist Party. Aymeric Chauprade was elected MEP, and it was reported on France 3 that he said "For the FN, I fulfilled my mission in Ile-de-France."40 During the first session of Parliament, Aymeric Chauprade was appointed head of the FN delegation to the European Parliament. He was also in charge of the negotiations aimed at setting up a European political group in Parliament.41
His roles in the European Parliament included over the years 42 :
- 01-07-2014 / 18-01-2017: Committee on Foreign Affairs
- 01-07-2014 / 18-01-2017: Subcommittee on Human Rights
- 14-07-2014 / 01-07-2019: Delegation to the EU-Russia Parliamentary Cooperation Committee
- 07-09-2015 / 01-05-2018: Delegation to the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly
- 19-01-2017 / 01-05-2018: Subcommittee on Human Rights
- 19-01-2017 / 01-07-2019: Committee on Foreign Affairs
- 02-05-2018 / 01-07-2019: Subcommittee on Security and Defence
In June 2014 Chauprade took part in a seminal meeting in Vienna, organized by “Orthodox businessman” and oligarch Konstantin Malofeev, celebrating the 200th anniversary of Metternich’s Holy Alliance. It brought together the A-list of the European far right with the hope of developing a pan-European strategy. It included the Russian fascist ideologue Alexander Dugin; the well-known nationalist painter Ilya Glazunov (1930-2017); the leaders of several European far-right and monarchist groups: Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma, leader of the Catholic-monarchist Carlist movement in Spain; Serge de Pahlen, president of the Swiss financial company Edifin Service and on the board of Konstantin Malofeev's St. Basil the Great Foundation; Marion Maréchal-Le Pen, grand-daughter of Jean-Marie Le Pen and niece of Marine Le Pen, at the time attached to Front National; the extreme Right Viennese FPÖ politicians Heinz-Christian Strache, Johann Gudenus, and Johann Herzog; Volen Siderov, chairman and founder of the Bulgarian far-right party Ataka; several right-wing extremists from Croatia; and noblemen from Georgia and Russia.43 These contacts may seem disparate at first, but they are not. All are campaigning for the establishment of a European ultraconservative international that would bring together monarchists, far-right parties, as well as Catholic and Orthodox groups.44
Konstantin Malofeev in his office stuffed with icons and other Russian Orthodox paraphernalia.
On August 11, 2014, Chauprade published an official press release,45 in which he came out, on behalf of the National Front, for bombardments on the jihadists of the Islamic State, both in Iraq and in Syria, in coordination with the leaders of these countries, notably Bashar al-Assad in Syria.46 In parallel, he developed his geopolitical vision for France in a longer text published on his blog, entitled: “France facing the Islamic question: credible choices for a French future.”47
In this texts, he set out a vision centered on France's ethno-cultural identity - "a nation of European descent and Christian culture," "threatened by the replacement of its historical population by a population that is predominantly African and Muslim" - in opposition to "Sunni Islamic fundamentalism," the only "real enemy of France." For Chauprade, "Western Europeans are in the same boat as the Israelis," since the "Palestinian cause," once a "nationalist cause", has become "an Islamic cause."48 49
This text was widely commented on in extreme right-wing circles. The movement around the anti-Semitic Alain Soral - which Aymeric Chauprade essentially criticized for putting anti-Zionism, and even anti-Semitism before patriotism - responded very critically,50 even though Chauprade had previously obtained the support of Soral's Égalité et Réconciliation, which published articles by him on its website.8 This quarrel led Alain Soral to announce the creation of his own political party with Dieudonné, in order to "totally dissociate himself from the Front National."50
Frédéric Chatillon, Axel Loustau and Julien Rochedy attacked Aymeric Chauprade's position.51 The Bloc Identitaire, on the other hand, welcomed the text in which it found itself.48 The newspaper Libération stated that the "Chauprade doctrine [...] is undoubtedly, quite simply, that of the Front National."52 However, Marine Le Pen quickly disassociated herself from it, saying that the manifesto was part of the "clash of civilizations" theory to which she had "always been opposed."53
In September 2014, Chauprade published an opinion piece where he said he is in favor of the “reversal of migratory flows.”54 In line with his manifesto but against the line of his party, he then indicated, in November 2014, that he did not support, "in a personal capacity," the draft resolution for the recognition of Palestine tabled to the National Assembly by Benoît Hamon and Élisabeth Guigou, stating: "A Palestinian state is legitimate, with a viable territory and a return to the 1967 borders, but to recognize a state, you have to recognize a real state, which controls a territory. I think that we must first manage for Mahmoud Abbas to regain authority over the whole territory.”55
"Air Cocaine" affair
On March 20, 2013, two French pilots had been arrested at the Punta Cana airport in the Dominican Republic while they were about to take off with 26 suitcases containing 680kg of cocaine with a private jet, headed towards Saint-Tropez.56 Bruno Odos and Pascal Fauret were both former French Air Force pilots, and one was part of the French strategic nuclear task force.57 Rapidly, a support committee was formed by Air France pilots and former French air force pilots to help them escape in October 2015, including Christophe Naudin, which Chauprade joined. (see below)
In January 2015, Marine Le Pen announced during an interview on France Inter that Chauprade would no longer be her adviser on international issues, which was presented as a disavowal58 based on to her denunciation in a video of a Islamist “fifth column” in France.59 He was also stripped of his duties as head of the FN delegation in the European Parliament and replaced by Édouard Ferrand in January 2015, after several statements disapproved by Marine Le Pen, despite the support of Marion Maréchal and Jean-Marie Le Pen.60 However, Chauprade kept on working with Marine Le Pen, for whom he organized a visit in Egypt, in May 2015.59
In August 2015, at the end of the Odos' and Fauret's trial, the Frenchmen were declared guilty and sentenced to 20 years of prison. At the end of the trial, the pilots appealed and remained free under surveillance. According to various media reports, in September-October 2015, Chauprade had participated in the exfiltration of the pilots, who, from 2009 to 2012, had been an adviser to Dominican President Leonel Fernández.25 61
After having wanted to remain in the shadows, the revelations of Christophe Naudin forced Aymeric Chauprade to detail his role in the escape of the two pilots, and he gave an interview to Paris Match in late October 2015.62 He told the newspaper that after the announcement of the conviction of the two pilots in August 2015:
I raised the idea of exfiltrating them during a discussion with people from the support committee. They spoke about it to Christophe Naudin, who came to see me. He told me that the idea had occurred to him as well. "We will think about how to do it," he told me.
Subsequently, in mid-September 2015, Chauprade and Naudin traveled together to Santo Domingo. According to the Paris Match interview62 :
The idea was to set up two separate teams: one in the Dominican Republic for the Land-Sea exfiltration and the other for the return to mainland France. I was the leader of team 1 - In chronological order of production - and Christophe that of team 2. We formed our teams separately, avoiding giving each other details because the more tightness the more the operation is preserved.
In October 2015, Odos and Forret managed to escape from the Dominican Republic, apparently with the active assistance of Pierre Malinowski, as photographic evidence shows.56
Pierre Malinowski (center) with the two pilots, Bruno Odos (on the left) and Pascal Fauret (on the right), escaping from the Dominican Republic in October 2015.
Odos and Fauret were rearrested in November 2015 upon their return to France.63 On November 22, 2015, the Dominican Republic issued an arrest warrant against Chauprade, Christophe Naudin and Pierre Malinowski.56 However, this seems to have been retracted given their unimpeded foreign travels ever since. In April 2019, Fauret and Odos received a 6-year prison sentence each.63 According to the BBC, "A further five people have also been handed sentences for their involvement. Ringleader Ali Bouchareb was given 18 years in prison. His accomplice Frank Colin was handed a 12-year sentence."63
In early November 2015, Marine Le Pen “disapproved that he [Chauprade] took a personal initiative which reflects badly ... on the FN,” and it was the beginning of the end regarding her close relationship with Chauprade.64
On November 9, 2015, Chauprade announced his withdrawal from the National Front. Like some other members, he deplored the influence of Florian Philippot on Marine Le Pen and the party's political path.65 He also indicated that "the influence of Alain Soral on part of the National Front was one of the basic reasons which led him to leave that movement."66
For her part, Marine Le Pen affirmed that "especially after the Air Cocaine affair, our disagreements with A. Chauprade had become too severe and his stay at the FN impossible."67 However, Marion Maréchal Le Pen welcomed the exfiltration of the two pilots.67
Subsequently, Chauprade quit the Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF) group in the European Parliament, which he had joined after its foundation in June 2015, to return to the non-inscrits benches.
After the publication of a video evoking an Islamist “fifth column” in France, in January 2016, Chauprade had to appear at a hearing before the 17th chamber of the Paris Criminal Court.68 That month, Chauprade announced the creation of an new far-right party, Les Français Libres (LFL), with a view to bringing together the "credible and established Right." He remarked that voters should not have to choose “between globalized socialism and nationalist socialism” in the 2017 presidential election.69 According to L'Express2 :
The former adviser to Marine le Pen on international issues had left the National Front on November 9, 2015, after a resounding indictment against the moral and ideological "treason" of Marine le Pen. Today, the 47-year-old geopolitical scientist wishes to represent the right of "Patrick Buisson and Eric Zemmour, which does not belong to any political formation."
Aymeric Chauprade puts three main subjects at the heart of this new party: "The de-Islamization of France"; "the de-nationalisation of France, that is to say the decline in public spending and the return of the State to its sovereign functions"; and thirdly, "to make France a great power again, a geopolitical, military, energy, maritime power."
When the creation of LFL was announced, Chauprade said he was ready to "help a presidential candidate, who will probably be from Les Républicains, but who could also be Philippe de Villiers if he returns to politics," and attributed to the French businessman Charles Beigbeder "the ideal profile of a reformer of the Right."68
In April 2016, Aymeric Chauprade said he was “increasingly close” to the Republicans and “wishes to be able to play a role in a possible right-wing system of government.”70 Olivier Faye thus underlines that he "nowadays wants to display a more moderate face to reassure his potential allies," in particular by making more moderate remarks on immigration and by presenting himself as "the anti-FN weapon for the right."70 During the 2016 Republican presidential primary, he voted for Nicolas Sarkozy in the first round, then for François Fillon in the second round.71
Speculated to be a nothing-burger, Le Monde wrote in April 2016 that “the party has still not been registered in the Official Journal.”70 This may have prompted that the registration of the party was made official a few days later. LFL self-disbanded in June of the following year.72
On July 1, 2016, Chauprade was in Berlin to give a lecture on geopolitics as part of the Dialogue of Civilization meeting, hosted by Vladimir Yakunin's lobby group Dialogue of Civilisations Research Institute.
Left to right: Alexey Komov, Pat Fagan, Don Feder, Allan Carlson, Vladimir Yakunin, Larry Jacobs and Natalya Yakunina during the Moscow Demographic Summit in 2011.
Around that time, he tried to join the French delegation of the right-wing European People's Party parliamentary group. According to Valeurs actuelles, he enjoyed the support of the deputies Michèle Alliot-Marie, Nadine Morano and Brice Hortefeux , but followers of Alain Juppé, such as Françoise Grossetête and Alain Lamassoure, opposed Chauprade's accession to the group.74
Around 2016, a high-flown online biography appeared on Chauprade's blog, probably in anticipation of his falling political star, where he advertised his skills as an independent adviser:11
On the strength of his ten years spent at the "top level" of French higher military education and his international reputation in geopolitics (all his works are commercial successes selling more than 20,000 copies each), Aymeric Chauprade is now a professor invited to many universities and devotes himself to publishing, writing and international consulting. Deeply attached to his country and its civilization, he does not intend to "settle in exile" but intends, in the years to come, to contribute to the awakening of European identity and to play his full role in the political reconstruction of Europe. a liberated France.
Also a copy of his CV appeared, published on the Universidad de San Andrés website. There, he specified the following teaching and consultancy jobs in the past:12
- The Institute of Higher Studies of French National Defense (Paris)
- School of economic warfare (Paris)
- Air Force Officers Training School (Paris)
- Naval officers Training School (Paris)
- School of Gendarmerie (Paris)
- Naval Academy (Brest, France).
- Overseas Officers Training School (Rueil Malmaison, France)
- The French Language Speaking and Globalization Institute. University of Lyon II
- The French National School of Administration
- College of Royal Armed Forces, Rabat (Morocco)
- College of Defense, Tunis (Tunisia)
- College of Defense, Zagreb (Croatia)
- College of Defense, Jakarta (Indonesia)
- Law School, University of Rabat (Morocco) Training and Research
- Vice-President of the International relations of the Mediterranean, University of Beirut (Lebanon)
- Member of the Science Board of the Geopolitical Board (Budapest, Hungary)
- Visiting professor in Russia (MGIMO, Moscow)
- Visiting professor in Popular Republic of China, Beijing, China Institute for International Strategic Studies
- Former consultant for the French Ministry of Defense
- Current consultant fr French industrial groups
- Current consultant for Swiss banks
On March 16, 2017, Chauprade commented on the "shadow men" around the National Front in an Envoyé Special documentary. According to him:75
Marine Le Pen is not free, she is held by those people (Frédéric Chatillon, Axel Loustau and Philippe Péninque). If she comes to power, those people will too. There is no reason for this group to disappear. It will become the group that brought her to power. It is the National Front economy. They are Marine Le Pen's secret.
During the 2017 presidential election, he supported François Fillon in the first round and then announced that he would vote for Emmanuel Macron 71 in the second round.
In June 2017, the LFL self-disbanded after only one year of official existence.
In late 2017, Chauprade called for the recomposition of the "national and civilizational Right," and came out once more in support of his old friend Philippe de Villiers in his candidacy for the 2017 presidential election.76
In February 2022, during an interview for the far-right media Livre Noir, Chauprade defended the idea of a Greater Russia having annexed Ukraine and Belarus and justifies the invasion of Ukraine by Russia.79
On May 31, 2023, Chauprade appeared as "political analyst" in a video by the Russian state broadcaster RT International, stating that the Ukraine war was the product of the US wanting to cut Europe's access to Russian gas and create a new dependency on US LNG.80
- 1 a b Simon Taylor, “Daughter of Putin Spokesman Dmitry Peskov Working for Far-Right French MEP in Brussels,” The Telegraph, February 25, 2019, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/02/25/daughter-putin-spokesman-dmitry-peskov-working-far-right-french/.
- 2 a b “‘Les Français Libres’, le nouveau parti d’un ancien député européen du FN,” L’Express, January 13, 2016, https://www.lexpress.fr/politique/les-francais-libres-le-nouveau-parti-d-un-ancien-depute-europeen-du-fn_1753184.html.
- 3 a b Maxime Vaudano, Jérémie Baruch, and Anne Michel, “« Pandora Papers » : ces sociétés qu’Aymeric Chauprade, ancien proche de Marine Le Pen, ne saurait voir,” Le Monde, October 4, 2021, https://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2021/10/04/pandora-papers-ces-societes-qu-aymeric-chauprade-ancien-proche-de-marine-le-pen-ne-saurait-voir_6096999_4355770.html.
- 4“Aymeric Chauprade,” Fondation Emile Chanoux, accessed May 29, 2023, https://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/index2.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fondchanoux.org%2Faymericchauprade_1_0_527.aspx#federation=archive.wikiwix.com&tab=url.
- 5Aline Robert, “Débuts Tendus Pour La Délégation FN d’eurodéputés – EURACTIV.Fr,” Euractiv, May 27, 2014, https://www.euractiv.fr/section/elections-2014/news/debuts-tendus-pour-la-delegation-fn-d-eurodeputes/.
- 6“‘Air Cocaïne’: qui est le sulfureux Aymeric Chauprade?,” L’Express, October 27, 2015, https://www.lexpress.fr/politique/rn/air-cocaine-qui-est-le-sulfureux-aymeric-chauprade_1729994.html.
- 7Jean Sévillia, “Le poids des civilisationsdans l’Histoire,” Le Figaro, February 7, 2009, https://www.lefigaro.fr/lefigaromagazine/2009/02/07/01006-20090207ARTFIG00176--le-poids-des-civilisations-dans-l-histoire-.php.
- 8 a b c d e f Marine Turchi, “Chauprade, un pied au FN, l’autre chez les ultras d’extrême droite,” Mediapart, May 13, 2014, https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/130514/chauprade-un-pied-au-fn-lautre-chez-les-ultras-dextreme-droite.
- 9Aymeric Chauprade, Géopolitique: constantes et changements dans l’histoire, 3e éd. rev. et augm (Paris: Ellipses, 2007).
- 10“Aymeric Chauprade : L’ennemi, c’est La Dictature Du Relativisme, Le Blog de L’Homme Nouveau,” l’Homme Nouveau, November 27, 2013, https://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/index2.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hommenouveau.fr%2F825%2Fsociete%2Faymeric-chauprade---l-ennemi--c-est-la-dictature-du-relativisme.htm#federation=archive.wikiwix.com&tab=url.
- 11 a b c d e f g h i “Carnet de Bord d’Aymeric Chauprade: Notice Biographique,” realpolitik.tv, accessed May 30, 2023, https://archive.is/gBN3z.
- 12 a b c d “Aymeric (Paul Henri) CHAUPRADE,” live.v1.udesa.edu.ar, accessed May 30, 2023, https://web.archive.org/web/20160304004737/http://live.v1.udesa.edu.ar/files/UAHumanidades/EVENTOS/CVChauprade.pdf.
- 13Aymeric Chauprade, “La géopolitique: genèse d’une science politique, déterminants et modèles explicatifs” (Thèse de doctorat, 1970-2019, France, Université Paris Descartes, 2001).
- 14“Liste Des Personnalités Signataires de l’Appel « Les Européens Veulent La Paix »,” accessed May 30, 2023, http://nonguerre.chez.com/liste.htm.
- 15Renaud Dely, “L’extrême droite ratisse large contre les frappes de l’Otan. Le «Collectif non à la guerre» a tenu une réunion proserbe hier soir.,” Libération, April 22, 1999, https://www.liberation.fr/france/1999/04/22/l-extreme-droite-ratisse-large-contre-les-frappes-de-l-otan-le-collectif-non-a-la-guerre-a-tenu-une-_269244/.
- 16Jacques Leclercq, Dictionnaire de la mouvance droitiste et nationale, de 1945 à nos jours (L'Harmattan, 2008), 19.
- 17 “Le Blog Officiel de Bernard Lugan: A Saint-Cyr, l’Afrique n’est plus Au Programme...,” Le Blog Officiel de Bernard Lugan (blog), April 15, 2015, http://bernardlugan.blogspot.com/2015/04/a-saint-cyr-lafrique-nest-plus-au.html.
- 18 a b Laurent Lagneau, “Chasse aux sorcières au Collège interarmées de défense,” Zone Militaire, February 5, 2009, https://www.opex360.com/2009/02/05/chasse-aux-sorcieres-au-college-interarmees-de-defense/.
- 19 a b Camille Bordenet, “Européennes : un géopolitologue aux manœuvres pour le FN,” Le Monde.fr, January 22, 2014, https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2014/01/22/europeennes-un-geopolitologue-aux-man-uvres-pour-le-fn_4352725_823448.html.
- 20Pierre-Emmanuel Barral, Grands théoriciens des relations internationales: 100 auteurs majeurs (Levallois-Perret: STUDYRAMA, 2015), 280.
- 21Aymeric Chauprade, Chronique du choc des civilisations (Périgueux: Chronique, 2009).
- 22Jean Guisnel, “Chauprade, l’homme Qui Forme Les Officiers et Déforme l’histoire, Actualité Défense Ouverte : Le Point,” Le Point, February 4, 2009, https://web.archive.org/web/20090627215410/http://www.lepoint.fr/actualites-monde/2009-02-04/chauprade-l-homme-qui-forme-les-officiers-et-deforme-l-histoire/1648/0/313659.
- 23Jean-Dominique Merchet, “La justice donne raison à Aymeric Chauprade contre le ministère de la Défense,” Marianne, June 28, 2011, http://web.archive.org/web/20131113220243/http://www.marianne.net/blogsecretdefense/La-justice-donne-raison-a-Aymeric-Chauprade-contre-le-ministere-de-la-Defense_a305.html.
- 24Jean Guisnel, “Le tribunal administratif avalise le renvoi d’Aymeric Chauprade des écoles de la défense,” Le Point, July 7, 2011, https://www.lepoint.fr/editos-du-point/jean-guisnel/le-tribunal-administratif-avalise-le-renvoi-d-aymeric-chauprade-des-ecoles-de-la-defense-07-07-2011-1350338_53.php.
- 25 a b “« Air cocaïne » : qui est Aymeric Chauprade ?,” Le Monde.fr, October 27, 2015, https://www.lemonde.fr/police-justice/article/2015/10/27/air-cocaine-qui-est-aymeric-chauprade_4797940_1653578.html.
- 26Alexandra Saviana, “Découvrez le concept ‘d’Etat profond’, nouvelle marotte du FN soufflée par Trump,” Marianne, January 4, 2018, https://www.marianne.net/politique/decouvrez-le-concept-d-etat-profond-nouvelle-marotte-du-fn-soufflee-par-trump.
- 27“Realpolitik.Tv, La Géopolitique Sur Le Net, Depuis 2010. Site Fondé Par Aymeric Chauprade,” realpolitik.tv, August 22, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20160822220220/http://www.realpolitik.tv/.
- 28Marine Turchi, “Les réseaux russes de Marine Le Pen,” Mediapart, February 19, 2014, https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/190214/les-reseaux-russes-de-marine-le-pen.
- 29Jacques Frémeaux, Philippe Evanno, and Aymeric Chauprade, Menaces En Afrique Du Nord et Au Sahel et Sécurité Globale de L`Europe - Actes de Colloque (Ellipses, 2013), https://www.editions-ellipses.fr/accueil/4407-menaces-en-afrique-du-nord-et-au-sahel-et-securite-globale-de-leurope-actes-de-colloque-9782729882327.html.
- 30Nicolas Lebourg, "The French Far Right in Russia’s Orbit," Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, 2018, 5-6, https://www.carnegiecouncil.org/media/series/russian-soft-power-in-france/the-french-far-right-in-russias-orbit.
- 31 a b Miranda Blue, "Globalizing Homophobia, Part 2: ‘Today the Whole World Is Looking At Russia,’" RightWingWatch, October 3, 2013, https://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/globalizing-homophobia-part-2-today-the-whole-world-is-looking-at-russia/.
- 32"Европа ждёт от России консолидации здравых сил и организации сопротивления содомизации мира," Russkaya Narodnaya Liniya, June 17, 2013, https://ruskline.ru/news_rl/2013/06/17/evropa_zhdyot_ot_rossii_konsolidacii_zdravyh_sil_i_organizacii_soprotivleniya_sodomizacii_mira/.
- 33Marine Le Pen, “Conférence de Presse Internationale de Marine Le Pen en présence d’Aymeric Chauprade, géopoliticien,” Rassemblement National, January 22, 2014, https://rassemblementnational.fr/conferences-de-presse/conference-de-presse-internationale-de-marine-le-pen-en-presence-daymeric-chauprade-geopoliticien.
- 34Saïd Mahrane, “FN : ‘La civilisation française est menacée par le multiculturalisme,’” Le Point, November 13, 2013, https://www.lepoint.fr/politique/fn-la-civilisation-francaise-est-menacee-par-le-multiculturalisme-13-11-2013-1756587_20.php.
- 35“Le controversé Chauprade, tête de liste FN,” Le Figaro, January 22, 2014, https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2014/01/22/97001-20140122FILWWW00214-le-controverse-chauprade-tete-de-liste-fn.php.
- 36Marine Turchi, “Le FN renforce ses connexions russes,” Mediapart, June 11, 2014, https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/110614/le-fn-renforce-ses-connexions-russes.
- 37“Référendum/Crimée: le FN aura un observateur,” Le Figaro, March 13, 2014, https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2014/03/13/97001-20140313FILWWW00173-referendumcrimee-le-fn-aura-un-observateur.php.
- 38Boris Mabillard, “Annexer la Crimée, pour punir Kiev,” Le Temps, March 17, 2015, https://www.letemps.ch/opinions/annexer-crimee-punir-kiev.
- 39Alexandre Artamonov, “En direct de la Crimée : A. Chauprade témoigne,” La Voix De La Russie, March 16, 2014, http://web.archive.org/web/20140323151330/http://french.ruvr.ru/radio_broadcast/74538918/269590752/.
- 40“Aymeric Chauprade : ‘Pour le FN, j’ai rempli ma mission en Ile-de-France,’” France 3, May 26, 2014, https://france3-regions.francetvinfo.fr/paris-ile-de-france/aymeric-chauprade-pour-le-fn-j-ai-rempli-ma-mission-en-ile-de-france-485041.html.
- 41“Communiqué de Presse du Front National,” Front National, July 4, 2014, https://www.rassemblementnational.fr/communiques/communique-de-presse-du-front-national-34/.
- 42 a b “Aymeric Chauprade,” European Parliament, accessed May 30, 2023, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/124752/AYMERIC_CHAUPRADE/history/8.
- 43Anton Shekhovtsov, Russia and the Western Far Right: Tango Noir (London: Routledge, 2017), 199.
- 44Bernhard Odehnal, ”Gipfeltreffen mit Putins fünfter Kolonne,” Tagesanzeiger, 3 June 2014, https://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/ausland/europa/Gipfeltreffen-mit-Putins-fuenfter-Kolonne/story/30542701.
- 45Aymeric Chauprade, “La France doit participer militairement à la destruction de l’Etat islamique en Irak,” Front National, August 11, 2014, https://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/display2.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20140813003837%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.frontnational.com%2F2014%2F08%2Fla-france-doit-participer-militairement-a-la-destruction-de-letat-islamique-en-irak%2F.
- 46Tristan Quinault-Maupoil, “Syrie: le FN pour des frappes sur les djihadistes, en coordination avec el-Assad,” Le Figaro, August 12, 2014, https://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/le-scan/citations/2014/08/12/25002-20140812ARTFIG00115-syrie-le-fn-pour-des-frappes-sur-les-djihadistes-en-coordination-avec-el-assad.php.
- 47Aymeric Chauprade, “La France face à la question islamique : les choix crédibles pour un avenir français,” Realpolitik.tv (blog), August 11, 2014, http://web.archive.org/web/20140814012231/http://www.realpolitik.tv/2014/08/la-france-face-a-la-question-islamique-les-choix-credibles-pour-un-avenir-francais/.
- 48 a b Alexandre Sulzer, “Le FN poussé à changer de position sur Israël,” L’Express, August 15, 2014, https://www.lexpress.fr/politique/rn/l-aggiornamento-d-un-proche-conseiller-de-marine-le-pen-sur-le-proche-orient_1566685.html.
- 49Antoine Vouillazère, “Minute - La bombe estivale d’Aymeric Chauprade,” Minute, August 20, 2014, http://www.minute-hebdo.fr/tout-minute/politique/739-la-bombe-estivale-daymeric-chauprade.
- 50 a b “Alain Soral et Dieudonné vont lancer leur propre parti politique,” Franceinfo, October 21, 2014, https://www.francetvinfo.fr/societe/justice/dieudonne/alain-soral-et-dieudonne-vont-lancer-leur-propre-parti_725113.html.
- 51Abel Mestre, “Comment Alain Soral veut évincer Aymeric Chauprade du FN,” Le Monde.fr, October 13, 2014, https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2014/10/31/comment-alain-soral-veut-evincer-aymeric-chauprade-du-fn_5992856_823448.html.
- 52Dominique Albertini, “«Pour le Front national, il y a l’Occident chrétien et la barbarie»,” Libération, August 19, 2014, http://web.archive.org/web/20140821154109/http://www.liberation.fr/politiques/2014/08/19/pour-le-front-national-il-y-a-l-occident-chretien-et-la-barbarie_1083297.
- 53Abel Mestre and Caroline Monnot, “Les débuts difficiles d’Aymeric Chauprade au FN,” Le Monde, Droite(s) extrême(s), December 15, 2014, http://droites-extremes.blog.lemonde.fr/2014/12/15/les-debuts-difficiles-daymeric-chauprade-au-fn/.
- 54Cécile Barbière, “Un eurodéputé FN appelle à l’élimination des jihadistes francais,” www.euractiv.fr, September 8, 2014, https://www.euractiv.fr/section/all/news/un-eurodepute-fn-appelle-a-l-elimination-des-jihadistes-francais/.
- 55Marc de Boni, “La reconnaissance de la Palestine divise les députés FN,” Le Figaro, November 20, 2014, https://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/le-scan/couacs/2014/11/20/25005-20141120ARTFIG00052-la-reconnaissance-de-la-palestine-divise-les-deputes-fn.php.
- 56 a b c “Air Cocaïne: mandat d'arrêt dominicain contre l’Axonais Pierre Malinowski,” France Info, November 23, 2015, https://france3-regions.francetvinfo.fr/hauts-de-france/picardie/aisne/air-cocaine-mandat-arret-dominicain-contre-axonais-pierre-malinowski-860813.html.
- 57Soutien à Nos Pilotes Français Prisonniers, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXkb148mA-U.
- 58Marc de Boni and Emmanuel Galiero, “Marine Le Pen désavoue Aymeric Chauprade après ses propos sur les musulmans,” Le Figaro, January 19, 2015, https://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/le-scan/couacs/2015/01/19/25005-20150119ARTFIG00131-marine-le-pen-desavoue-aymeric-chauprade-apres-ses-propos-sur-les-musulmans.php.
- 59 a b Marine Turchi, “« Front national, l’œil de Moscou »: enquête sur l’alliance avec la Russie de Poutine,” Mediapart, November 2, 2015, https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/021115/front-national-loeil-de-moscou-enquete-sur-lalliance-avec-la-russie-de-poutine.
- 60Abel Mestre, “Les raisons de la disgrâce d’Aymeric Chauprade au Front national,” Le Monde.fr, January 22, 2015, https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2015/01/22/les-raisons-de-l-eviction-d-aymeric-chauprade-du-front-national_4561861_823448.html.
- 61Dominique Rizet, “Air Cocaïne: Aymeric Chauprade, eurodéputé FN, était ‘au plus près’ de l’opération d’exfiltration,” BFMTV, October 27, 2015, https://www.bfmtv.com/police-justice/air-cocaine-aymeric-chauprade-eurodepute-fn-etait-au-plus-pres-de-l-operation-d-exfiltration_AV-201510270076.html.
- 62 a b François de Labarre, “Aymeric Chauprade : ‘J’étais Le Chef de l’équipe 1’ - Air Cocaïne. Exclusif.,” Paris Match, October 29, 2015, https://www.parismatch.com/Actu/Societe/Air-cocaine-Aymeric-Chauprade-FN-sur-les-dessous-de-l-operation-d-exfiltration-des-pilotes-855431.
- 63 a b c “‘Air Cocaine’ Pilots Sentenced to Six Years in Drug Smuggling Trial,” BBC News, April 6, 2019, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-47839516.
- 64“‘Air Cocaïne’ : Marine Le Pen prend ses distances avec Aymeric Chauprade,” Franceinfo, November 4, 2015, https://www.francetvinfo.fr/faits-divers/justice-proces/proces-air-cocaine/air-cocaine-marine-le-pen-prend-ses-distances-avec-aymeric-chauprade_1159455.html.
- 65Sylvain Chazot, “Lelab Europe1 - le meilleur de l’actualité politique sur le web,” lelab.europe1.fr, November 9, 2015, https://lelab.europe1.fr/aymeric-chauprade-quitte-le-fn-2617803.
- 66Robin D’Angelo and Mathieu Molard, “Exclu : Les documents qui rhabillent Soral pour l’hiver,” StreetPress, January 18, 2016, https://www.streetpress.com/sujet/1453121203-exclu-documents-soral-leaks.
- 67 a b Geoffroy Clavel, “Le FN version Philippot fait des dégâts,” Le HuffPost, November 10, 2015, https://www.huffingtonpost.fr/actualites/article/le-depart-d-aymeric-chauprade-nouvel-acte-du-divorce-des-deux-fn_65723.html.
- 68 a b Louis Hausalter, “Aymeric Chauprade : Le Petit Parti et Le Gros Coup de Com’ de l’ex-FN,” Marianne, January 13, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20160307221327/https://www.marianne.net/aymeric-chauprade-petit-parti-gros-coup-com-ex-fn-100239376.html.
- 69Olivier Faye, “Aymeric Chauprade veut fédérer la « droite »,” Le Monde.fr, January 13, 2016, https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2016/01/13/aymeric-chauprade-lance-un-parti-et-se-rapproche-des-republicains_4846197_823448.html.
- 70 a b c Olivier Faye, “L’appel du pied très appuyé d’Aymeric Chauprade en direction des Républicains,” Le Monde, Droite(s) extrême(s), April 15, 2016, http://droites-extremes.blog.lemonde.fr/2016/04/15/lappel-du-pied-tres-appuye-daymeric-chauprade-en-direction-des-republicains/.
- 71 a b Claire Gaveau, “Pourquoi Aymeric Chauprade va voter Emmanuel Macron,” www.rtl.fr, May 4, 2017, https://www.rtl.fr/actu/politique/presidentielle-2017-aymeric-chauprade-emmanuel-macron-7788404140.
- 72“Les Français Libres (LFL),” Laurent de Boissieu, accessed May 30, 2023, https://www.france-politique.fr/wiki/Les_Fran%c3%a7ais_Libres_(LFL).
- 73“11e Rendez-Vous Européens de Strasbourg - Europe Où Sont Tes Valeurs ?” (Eurocorps, 2016), https://rvesblog.files.wordpress.com/2016/11/11rves-prog-print.pdf.
- 74Alexandre Sulzer, “Aymeric Chauprade : L’ennemi, c’est La Dictature Du Relativisme, Le Blog de L’Homme Nouveau,” l’Homme Nouveau, November 27, 2013, https://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/index2.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hommenouveau.fr%2F825%2Fsociete%2Faymeric-chauprade---l-ennemi--c-est-la-dictature-du-relativisme.htm#federation=archive.wikiwix.com&tab=url.
- 75Envoyé spécial Émission du jeudi 16 mars 2017, Envoyé spécial (France 2, 2017), https://www.france.tv/france-2/envoye-special/1859203-emission-du-jeudi-16-mars-2017.html.
- 76Emmanuel Galiero, “Aymeric Chauprade: «Pourquoi je quitte le Front national»,” Le Figaro, November 9, 2015, https://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/2015/11/09/01002-20151109ARTFIG00269-aymeric-chauprade-pourquoi-je-quitte-le-front-national.php.
- 77"Experts," Dialogue of Civilisations Institute, archived copy from January 12, 2019, https://web.archive.org/web/20190112082607/https://doc-research.org//experts/.
- 78"Aymeric Chauprade," Dialogue of Civilisations Research Institute, https://doc-research.org/author/aymeric-chauprade/.
- 79Nicolas Massol, “La longue indulgence de l’extrême droite française envers la Russie,” Libération, February 26, 2022, https://www.liberation.fr/politique/elections/la-longue-indulgence-de-lextreme-droite-francaise-envers-la-russie-20220226_KVKYCFMMPBF6NBLL53VD5ZA4GQ/.
- 80“Red Alert: Abduction of Europe,” RT International, May 31, 2023, https://www.rt.com/shows/documentary/577157-sanctions-germany-damage-own-economy/.