The Intermarium Support Group (ISG) was "founded by Andriy Biletsky, MP of Ukraine, the leader of National Corps, deputy head of the Verkhovna Rada Committee on National Security and Defense and the first commander of the Azov regiment."1 Since 2016 the ISG hosts a yearly conference, bringing together military specialists from the Central Eastern European far-right spectrum, particularly countries foreseen to join the "Intermarium."
Alexander [Oleksandr] Maslak (Ukrainian: Олександр Маслак; died September 6, 2017) has been described as the "true architect of the Intermarium" on the Ukrainian side.2 He had been a key figure behind the organization of the Intermarium Support Group conferences.
1st Intermarium Support Group conference
The inaugural ISG conference, which at the time also was called Intermarium Development Assistance Group (IDAG) was held on the 2nd of July, 2016 in Kyiv under the headline "Intermarium – a Geopolitical Alternative for Central and Eastern Europe,"3 introducing the Intermarium concept to representatives from potential comrades-in-arms from the Baltic-Black Sea region.4 The first day was reserved for lectures and discussions by senior representatives of various sympathetic organisations, the second conference day, for “the leaders of youth branches of political parties and nationalist movements of the Baltic-Black Sea area.”5 The senior delegates were from Belarus (Zmicier Mickiewicz, Belarus Security Blog); Croatia (Leo Marić; journalist); Estonia (Vaba Ukraina; “Free Ukraine”); Georgia (Giorgi Kuparashvili, head of the Military School of Colonel Yevhen Konovalets); Latvia (Gintarė Narkevičiūtė, “Director for International Affairs at the Ronald Reagan House, Vice-President of the IYDU and Ambassador for the Lithuania Tribune”); Poland (Mariusz Patey, director of the Institute of Professor Roman Rybarski; Witold Dobrowolski, at the time editor of the Polish neo-Nazi magazine Szturm); Slovakia (Slovenská pospolitosť; “Slovak Brotherhood”), and Sweden, but also “military attaches of diplomatic missions from the key countries in the region (Poland, Hungary, Romania and Lithuania) also joined the conference as honorary members of the Conference Bureau and expressed the wish for further cooperation with delegates and the AZOV movement.”5
2rd Intermarium Support Group conference
List of speakers 2017
All summaries of the speeches are from the report of the 2nd ISGC, published on the now defunct Reconquista blog on Tumblr.6
|Alfyorov, Olexandr; National Corps (Ukraine)||The inaugural speech of the 2nd ISGC was held by the secretary of Andriy Biletsky, Olexandr Alfyorov.1|
|Bačiulis, Audrius (Lithuania)||"Further, after the lunch break, the topic of territorial defense continued Audrius Bačiulis, Lithuanian expert on national defense policy and security matters, columnist of the “Lietuvos Žinios” daily newspaper: “The Lithuanian Case: How to Rebuild your Armed Forces, and Paramilitaries, despite Strong Governmental Opposition.” According to Mr. Bačiulis, for the past three years, Lithuania tripled its military budget, as well as restored military call-up and service in the land defense volunteer formations, first created in January of 1991 during the Soviet siege of Lithuanian Supreme Council (later Lithuanian National Defense Volunteer Forces). At the same time, the pre-war Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union has been restored. Interestingly enough, its emblem coincides with the Jagiellonian dynasty’s coat of arms adopted as a current symbol of the Intermarium. Since their inception, the first units of Lithuanian self-defense forces, partially supported by LRU, were meant to conduct half-guerilla combat and corresponded with light infantry. However, back then the authorities were not fond of the reborn volunteer movement. In accordance with the speech’s title, Mr. Bačiulis demonstrated that destruction of the armed forces both in Lithuania and Ukraine facing Russian hybrid warfare was carried out by the same post-communist elites. Both on the eve of Lithuania’s accession to NATO, when volunteers had to deliberately surrender their arms, and since regaining of independence by Lithuania in general, post-Soviet government was scared stiff of the volunteer movement and tried to neutralize it by any means possible. As Audrius Bačiulis fairly remarked, such an attitude, which culminated in the incident of “Kaunas insurgent volunteers,” resembles pretty much fear of the AZOV regiment by the Ukrainian authorities. However, in 2006, volunteer forces officially became a part of the Lithuanian Land Force.Fully in accord with the message of Damian Duda, Audrius Bačiulis confirmed that volunteer soldiers, who, above all, are citizens, and only in the second turn, are military, proved themselves much more efficient than the regular army in the course of the conflicts in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Ukraine. Thus, the military call-up terminated by post-communist authorities in 2008, was restored along with the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union only after the presidential victory by Dalia Grybauskaitė well-known for her firm stance against Putin’s hybrid aggression. Likewise, Mr. Bačiulis concluded to say that what could be perceived as volunteer riflemen’ weakness in peaceful times, is their strength in times of a possible hybrid war or even occupation of Lithuania: an absence of centralized command making them a thousand-headed hydra immune to the infiltration by modern analogues of NKVD; high mobility; knowledge of the area and people; networking (support and active coordination with the civilians)."|
|Duda, Damien||"Magister, teacher at Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin and activist of the Movement for the Territorial Defense, Mr. Duda focused namely on the self-defense opportunities under conditions of the hybrid or irregular warfare: “The Role and Importance of the Territorial Defense Formations. A Citizen in Defense of Homeland.” Since 2013, Mr. Duda has been interacting with Ukrainian volunteer battalions, the AZOV regiment in Mariupol in particular, and serving as a paramedic in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine. As opposed to the overformalized army, including Polish, which is incapable of eliminating even the results of a natural disaster, or combat a separatist threat, which was the case in the Donbas, territorial defense units know the enemy and the potentially subversive forces by face and can command the regular structures as it happened in Syria. Besides, Polish specialist in territorial defense overviewed the countries which do justice to self-defense forces, especially Switzerland where a successful completion of a course in self-defense is a must for further social realization. Finally, Damian Duda shared the experience of Polish paramilitary formations created by young enthusiasts and described the structure of the Polish system of territorial defense, which has been finally launched since this month by the government, as a possible role model for Ukrainian units. The Polish territorial defense battalion, which has formally existed for 10 years, now grows into a long-term state program addressed to motivated patriots (instead of functionaries of the former Soviet system) capable of performing both military and civil missions."|
|Kaalep, Ruuben||"The concluding speaker of the civil conference section was Ruuben Kaalep, head of “Sinine Äratus,” youth organization of the Eesti Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond party (Estonia). Symbolically, his speech entitled “Old Europe and Young Europe,” in fact, showed the main purpose of discussions which were raised throughout the day and determined the cultural mission of the Intermarium: to become a source of the fundamental European revival. Current Western civilization, according to an unequivocal sentence by Mr. Kaalep, is doomed. This is the space of abstract humanity, money and “human rights” without identity, myth, essence and any connection. The creative impulse which once nourished Roman Empire has been long exhausted, and remained only an empty shell. However, and this is Ruuben Kaalep’s rendition of the recipe for the European renaissance, peoples of the Baltics, Eastern and Central Europe have never been direct descendants of the Romans, and their barbarian core is still preserved. The original tribal nature of a human was not erased here. Indeed, namely the countries of the Intermarium region lay emphasis on ethnicity instead of abstract humanity and progress and reclaim their Viking, Cossack and so on roots. That is why Europe is not dead: it lives in the hearts of modern barbarians who are ready to resist to contemporary crusades in the name of human rights and political correctness. And that is why they are the future of Europe both in reality and in theory developing the principles of ethnofuturism. What is important, Ruuben Kaalep underlined that those “barbarians” were well aware that enemies have always tried to use their passionarity as a disintegrating factor, but nowadays nothing would disrupt the Intermarium unity bringing the new dawn of Europe."|
|Klonowski, Rajmund (Lithuania)||"The next speech, “Intermarium and the Question of a Polish Minority in Lithuania,” was dedicated to another delicate sphere of the regional security that is often abused by third geopolitical forces willing to split the region: the rights of national minorities in European countries. The speaker was Rajmund Klonowski, the head of “Wileńska Młodzież Patriotyczna,” Polish community in Lithuania. Having dwelled on the most significant pages of common history and cultural legacy, as well as modern stages of reunification after the conflicts of the former century, Mr. Klonowski explained the following points of his and his compatriots’ concern: underrepresentation of Polish linguistic rights, insufficient amount of Polish schools, Lithuanian-style phonetization of Polish names (the policy previously practiced by Russia-oriented Soviet authorities with regard to Lithuanians), limited access to the media and too high parliamentary threshold (5%). The latter even forced the Polish minority to enter the coalition with the pro-Kremlin party in order to be heard by a society. In the course of the discussion, including with the Lithuanian guests of the event, Mr. Klonowski underlined that a satisfactory for both sides solution of the aforementioned problems, as it happened, for example, in Tyrol, serves the interests of the Intermarium and prevents separatism. Besides, as a person well-familiar with the Habsburg family that favored the Pan- European union, he confirmed that the search for the way out may lie within various identitarian projects of European unity that flourished after the Second World War as an alternative of globalism."|
|Lagvinets, Ales||"The next speaker, Ales’ Lagvinets, head of the Belarusian initiative “Dzeya” (Action), focused precisely on the topic of the regional security and integrity: “Belarus and Energy Security of the Intermarium.” Quite expectedly, in spite of declared neutrality of Belarus as the host of Minsk negotiations in the Ukrainian-Russian conflict, he began to say that the government is extremely dependent on Russia. This dependence is particularly obvious in the energy field as up to 80 % of Belarusian energy companies are owned by Russian Gazprom. The dependence is mutually beneficial: Russia gets a loyal neighbor, which is especially important under conditions of a hybrid war with Ukraine, and Lukashenko’s regime, which has been reigning for 20 years, enjoys the popular support, since Russia sells gas to Belarus at a lower price than to Lithuania or Ukraine. (At least enjoyed: after the latest Belarusian-Russian debates over gas price followed by wide protests on Freedom Day against the so-called “tax on unemployment,” during which was detained Mr. Lagvinets and 20 people are still held in custody, credibility for the regime’s policies significantly decreased. – Reconquista). "|
|Marić, Leo||"The next speaker, Leo Maric, international secretary of the “Generacija Obnove” (Generation of Renewal) party, continued the topic of the Intermarium’s economic policy, but in the all-European perspective, more precisely, in the context of the conflict of economic interests with the EU: “Intermarium vs. Western Europe: A Geo-economic Aspect.” The negative outcomes of the accession to the EU faced by countries of Central and Eastern Europe, among them Croatia, above all, consist in huge emigration of the qualified and well-educated labor force to Western European countries with a more competitive market and, as a result, population ageing and the loss of tax payers. For instance, in 2007, Poland lost 2-3 million people, which comprises up to 7 % of population; in 2011, Latvian population decreased by 13 %; Bulgarian by 7 %; Croatia lost 150 thousand people and 3 % of population in the course of last 4 years. Furthermore, Leo Maric disclosed another threatening aspect of the EU policies: its role of the economic metropolis with regard to the “periphery” CEE countries. To prove that it is not one of conspiracy theories, Mr. Maric mentioned several eloquent examples: having established only 25 % of standard EU subsidy for Hungarian agriculture, the EU, in fact, ruined this traditionally strong sphere of Hungarian economy; on the eve of Croatia’s joining the EU, Great Britain and Netherlands put forward a demand to its government to sell the state sea ports and shipbuilding plants; Slovenia’s membership in the EU almost cost it the loss of monopoly in a beer market: the EU tried to help Belgian giant “Interbrew” to buy the assets of Slovenian “Union” brewery, a smaller rival of country’s leader in brewing “Pivovarna Lasko.” In other words, the European Commission acts like the “institutional Robin Hood” helping the poorer in the member states, but in reality the only countries that benefit from it are the well-known EU leaders. For instance, Poland and Hungary get money from the EU structural funds, but, as Günther Oettinger admitted, most of these finances return back to Germany. That is why Generacija Obnove joined the initiative of Wage Union “Equal Pay for Equal Work” (discussed above in the speech by its Latvian representative Konstantins Pupurs) aimed at balancing the salaries across Western and Eastern Europe and thus preventing CEE citizens from emigrating. The real goal of Wage Union, summarized Leo Maric, consists not in artificial wage homogenization, but in securing the just ratio of respective companies in the national economies of CEE countries."|
|Maslak, Olexandr (Ukraine)||Olexandr Alfyorov "gave the floor to the first speaker and moderator of the defense section Olexandr Maslak, PhD in Philosophy, expert of the “Rubicon” analytical group. In his introductory, with regard to both sections, speech entitled “Intermarium: New Challenges to Security,” Mr. Maslak stressed that the wars of a new generation are intrinsically related to politics, economy and information warfare. In particular, regained control over the Black Sea continental shelf by the Russian Federation deprived Ukraine of the respective economic zone and gas deposits.
Moreover, he showed that since the annexation of Crimea by Russia and the buildup of military capabilities in the Kaliningrad region, all Central and Eastern Europe has been lying within the reach of the Iskander short-range and the Caliber long-range missiles of the Russian Federation, which means that only a common system of regional security can deter the threat of a military intervention from the East. Besides, Olexandr Maslak reminded of the well-familiar since the times of Soviet intervention theatres of operations, Baltic in particular, and drew attention to the eloquent fact that Russian military training called “Zapad” (The West), which was held in 2013, completely meets and reproduces the conditions under which the hybrid war against Ukraine was unleashed a year later."
|Patey, Mariusz (Poland)||The civil section, which was moderated by Olena Semenyaka, International Secretary of National Corps, began with a speech by Mariusz Patey, director of the Institute of Roman Rubarsky, regular Polish participant of the Intermarium Development Assistance Group initiatives. In accordance with the speech title, “Economic Principles of the Intermarium Project,” he linked both sections, having fairly observed that cooperation in the field of defense also heavily rests on economy. Countries of the Intermarium region, united by the common history since XV century and common geographic space, have all reasons to launch joint economic, energetic and ecological projects on a basis of the close scientific exchange. Mr. Patey especially emphasized the importance to build regional gas and river corridors which would decrease the cost of transportation and elevate the region’s competitiveness. The need to diversify energy sources is persuasively proven by the fact that Poland, for example, imports gas at a higher price than Germany, the same as Ukraine buys more expensive reverse gas from Russia via intermediary European companies. Consequently, as Mariusz Patey proceeded to say, Poland develops the Gazoport LNG terminal at the Baltic Sea port of Swinoujscie aimed at gaining independence from the gas supply from the east, as well as engages in energy cooperation with Norway (the North corridor area). Speaking about the South corridor, there is a project named “White Stream” which could transport gas from Turkmenistan through Georgia to Europe via Crimea unless it was occupied. However, Ukrainian city of Odessa is also an option instead of Crimea. Oil and coal import from Russia costs Poland a lot of money, too (up to 20 billion USD). However, both Poland and Ukraine would benefit a lot from the long-discussed Odessa- Brody-Gdansk pipeline, and there are many oil refineries in Ukraine. This pipeline may be easily connected with the Baltics, too, thus uniting the Baltic and Black Seas. Further, there are several inland water ways of the regional significance which may be constructed according to Mr. Patey: the Odra- Vistula-Bug-Pripyat-Dnipro and the Odra-Vistula-San-Dniester river corridors. The Vistula-Dnipro corridor, in particular, was suggested back in XVIII century by the last king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Stanisław II Augustus. The latter corridor, if implemented, would connect the Intermarium countries to Moldova and was elaborated back in 1939. Finally, Mariusz Patey highlighted financial institutions necessary for implementing aforementioned projects: a regional bank, a solidarity fund (in case of natural disasters, for instance) and an investment fund. Ambitions of local businessmen and political elites, as well as emotional tensions provoked both by external and internal agents are the main obstacles on the way to the successful economic development of the Intermarium."|
|Pupurs, Konstantins (Latvia)||"The next speaker, Konstantins Pupurs from Latvia, covered a wider scope of issues concerning the regional and all-European security, more precisely, its decline, in a speech entitled “Intermarium – from “Wage Union” to Military Cooperation.” As a legendary member of Latvian National Anti-Communist Resistance Group Helsinki-86, he could observe the unfortunate chain of events in which old enemies and threats are being replaced by the new, even more dangerous ones. Among others, Mr. Pupurs mentioned an immigration catastrophe; terror acts against Europeans; sharp economic inequality, which also causes immigration; erosion of cultural traditions and moral values in Western Europe; destructive influence of political correctness; novel Russian imperialism, and consequences of election in France. It is no wonder that the system of the regional defense is well-elaborated, went on to say the speaker, since at its origins stood the military, Latvian general Peteris Radzins in particular, who also served at the army headquarters first of Ukrainian Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, then Symon Petliura. The initiative of Wage Union launched by 8 countries of CEE (Hungary, Croatia, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania), crowning the integration steps towards a new geopolitical reality, are especially closely related to the region’s security as it is aimed at just balancing the salaries across West and East Europe and thus preventing young qualified labor force from emigration. According to Mr. Pupurs, since 1991 only Latvia has lost 350,000 people (out of 2 million population), which has never been the case in such a short period of time since the times of Livonia up to Second World War and communist repression. Both in the end of his speech and during the discussion Konstantins Pupurs made it clear that if the European Commission failed to satisfy the request of Wage Union, its initiators would promote closer Adriatic-Baltic-Black Sea cooperation in the economic field."|
3rd Intermarium Support Group conference
On October 13, 2018, the ISG organized its third congress. Besides the Ukrainian hosts, a large part of the foreign speakers from Poland, Lithuania and Croatia had a (para-)military background, such as advisor to the Polish Defense Minister, Jerzy Targalski, or retired Brigadier General of the Croatian Armed Forces, Bruno Zorica. Amongst the talking points of a Polish military educator, Damien Duda, were "methods of the preparation of a military reserve in youth organizations" and the "importance of paramilitary structures within the framework of the defense complex of a modern state.”
List of speakers 2018
All speaker profiles are taken from the report of the 3rd Intermarium Support Group conference.7
|8 National Corps (Ukraine)Alfyorov, Olexandr;||"The Section of Civil Cooperation was opened by Olexandr Alf’orov, Ph.D. in History, higher board member of the National Corps party. He elaborated on the topic of the memory policy in the countries of the Adriatic-Baltic-Black Sea region. Cultural space and value orientations are as important in ensuring the integrity of our region as weapons, for this is an invisible shield of the civilizational choice made by the nations of Intermarium. However, he also stated the failures of the current Ukrainian authorities which did not mark the anniversary of the restoration of Ukrainian statehood by Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, not mentioning the celebration of military alliances of Ukraine with the countries of the region in the former century."|
|Azov Battalion (Ukraine)Berkal, Kyrylo; Lieutenant of the||"The next speaker was the head of the Commanders Military School of Colonel Yevhen Konovalets, Senior Lieutenant, veteran of the Azov regiment Kyrylo Berkal («Kirt»), who persuasively revealed the principles of effective modernization of military education on the example of the Military School under his leadership. Having inherited, in fact, a ruined post-Soviet army, the Azov regiment was the first unit of the Ukrainian military which initiated transition to the NATO military standards, currently, synonymous to the Western, and created the institution to teach them not only future officers of the Azov regiment but also other units of the National Guard of Ukraine and the Armed Forces in general."|
|Duda, Damien;9 military educator (Poland)||"Further, Damian Duda, professor at Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Vice-President of the Academic Legion Association, paramedical instructor, discussed the methods of the preparation of a military reserve in youth organizations. In fact, he redefined the importance of paramilitary structures within the framework of the defense complex of a modern state. His experience as one of the leading figures behind the Polish Movement for the Territorial Defense caused a hail of questions from curious Ukrainian colleagues."|
|10Doroshenko, Dmytro||"Concluding the Section of Civil Cooperation, Dmytro Doroshenko and Danyil Maiorov, head and methodist of NGO «Youth Corps,» presented unique and highly successful examples of the modern national-patriotic upbringing of children and the youth at the Azovets camp and the Descendants of the Free international camp, having invited the listeners to participate in the latter. For the proper education of the younger generation has always been and remains a top priority for the sustainable development of the state and the future of the region."|
|Marek, Michał; (Poland)||"Regional Security and Defense section was concluded by Michał Marek, postgraduate student at the Ukrainian Studies Department of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The report described the current state of defense industry in Ukraine and Poland as well as addressed their possible cooperation in the future. What is important, Michał Marek discussed not only the prospects for the Polish help in the modernization of Ukrainian arms, tanks in particular, but also highlighted the obstacles to the latter, first and foremost, corruption of the current Ukrainian government."|
|11 (Lithuania)Markevičius, Kęstutis||"Continuing the topic of historical memory, the next speaker, Kęstutis Markevičius, representative of NGO «LDK palikuonys,» highlighted the practical Lithuanian-Ukrainian cooperation within the framework of the «Memory of the Nation» project. Recently, Lithuanian volunteers donated over 2,000 oak trees for planting on the Ukrainian island of Khortytsia, which symbolized the fallen defenders of Ukraine, Lithuania and the deep roots of the Lithuanian-Ruthenian historical interaction. Besides, Kęstutis Markevičius, who was recently awarded by the President of Lithuania Dalia Grybauskaitė for the significant contribution to the development of the Lithuanian national memory, told the audience about the remarkable episode in the modern history of Lithuania: a solemn state funeral of the legendary commander of Forest Brothers Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas, cruelly executed by the NKVD, on October 5-6."|
|Materniak, Dariusz (Poland)||"The next speaker, Dariusz Materniak, founder of The Poland-Ukraine Research Centre, author of the book «LITPOLUKRBRIG: United for Peace,» referred in his speech to his own research of this international formation. The author made a fascinating excursion into the history of military cooperation between Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine, having demonstrated successful campaigns, strategic advantages of such an alliance and the importance of bringing together the efforts of these states in the defense field, which was initiated by the consolidated LITPOLUKRBRIG brigade. Kyrylo Berkal, head of the Commanders Military School, and other conference participants took the author’s promise to distribute his rare book among them."|
|12 (Ukraine)Maiorov, Danyil||"Concluding the Section of Civil Cooperation, Dmytro Doroshenko and Danyil Maiorov, head and methodist of NGO «Youth Corps,» presented unique and highly successful examples of the modern national-patriotic upbringing of children and the youth at the Azovets camp and the Descendants of the Free international camp, having invited the listeners to participate in the latter. For the proper education of the younger generation has always been and remains a top priority for the sustainable development of the state and the future of the region."|
|13 (Poland)Patey, Mariusz||"Undoubtedly, it is impossible to talk about any unions without the development of the economic foundation of such a cooperation. That is why Director of the Institute of Roman Rybarsky, Dr. Mariusz Patey, delivered a report on the financial infrastructure of the Intermarium region, which included the historical precedents of successful economic collaboration between the countries of the Adriatic-Baltic-Black Sea region. The speaker also reviewed existing projects and initiatives on the economic cooperation of the region’s countries in the foreseeable future. The ideas about the establishment of the Intermarium Bank, the Intermarium Investment Fund and the Solidarity Fund aimed at financing promising start-ups turned out to be extremely interesting to the audience."|
|Semenyaka, Olena (Ukraine)||"Finally, it is worth paying tribute to the moderator, Olena Semenyaka, international secretary, higher board member of National Corps, who skillfully summed up the speeches, entered interesting discussions and, most importantly, conceptually arranged and organized this event."|
|Targalski, Jerzy; advisor to the Polish Defense Minister (Poland)||"Then Jerzy Targalski, Doctor of Humanities, advisor to the Polish Defense Minister, professor at the Centre for East European Studies at the University of Warsaw, famous Polish historian and publicist, took the floor. He analyzed the development of the regional security system in Eastern Europe and emphasized the exceptional importance of enhancing the defense capabilities of Poland, Romania and Ukraine as states under direct threat of the military aggression of the Russian Federation. In addition, Dr. Targalski discussed the modern geopolitical conjecture in the world: Intermarium as a probable alternative of the EU; Kremlin’s lobbies inside Visegrad 4, the importance of overcoming Hungarian-Ukrainian transborder issues in particular; the threat of the alliance between Germany-led EU and the Russian Federation; improbability of the war between Russia and China as countries interested in expelling the US from Eurasia; high chances for the interethnic clashes in Germany, and more."|
|Zorica, Bruno; retired Brigadier General of the Croatian Armed Forces (Croatia)||"The first speaker of honor as part of the opening Regional Security and Defense section was Bruno Zorica, Brigadier General of the Croatian Armed Forces, the reformer of the Croatian Army and one of the commanders of the Operations Storm and Lightning, who spoke about the state of the Croatian-Ukrainian defense cooperation, shared his experience in improving the state’s defense capability and disclosed the horizons of the Adriatic-Baltic-Black Sea military capabilities’ integration. Besides, he promised his support in the implementation of the programmatic provision of National Corps: establishment of the Ukrainian Foreign Legion. Also, Bruno Zorica-Zulu brought a certificate of merit granting the Azov regiment the honorable membership in the BOJNA FRANKOPAN veteran association."|
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- 1. a. b. "2nd Paneuropa Conference was held in Kyiv," Ukrainian Traditionalist Club, November 3, 2018. uktk.org/2nd-paneuropa-conference-was-held-in-kyiv/.
- 2. Facebook post by Intermarium News, September 6, 2020, https://www.facebook.com/IntermariumNews2015/photos/a.111571587287586/156814796096598/?type=3.
- 3. a. b. "The 2nd conference of the Intermarium Development Assistance Group," Reconquista Blog on Tumblr, May 10, 2017, https://web.archive.org/web/20180616101923/http://reconquista-europe.tumblr.com/post/160510944016/the-2-nd-conference-of-the-intermarium.
- 4. “The AZOV movement held the Inaugural Conference of the Intermarium Development Assistance Group,” Intermarium (undated), http://intermariumnc.org/?p=224.
- 5. a. b. c. Ibid.
- 6. "The 2nd conference of the Intermarium Development Assistance Group," Reconquista blog on Tumblr, May 10, 2017, https://web.archive.org/web/20180616101923/http://reconquista-europe.tumblr.com/post/160510944016/the-2-nd-conference-of-the-intermarium.
- 7. Third Conference of the Intermarium Support Group, http://intermariumnc.org/?p=576.
- 8. Facebook page of Oleksandr Alfyorov, https://www.facebook.com/intermariumsupportgroup/photos/a.247919152567343/247922425900349.
- 9. Facebook page of Damien Duda, https://www.facebook.com/damian.duda.5205.
- 10. Facebook page of Dmitry Doroshenko (Дмитрий Дорошенко), https://www.facebook.com/dimadoroshenk.
- 11. Facebook page of Kęstutis Markevičius, https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013769984159.
- 12. Facebook page of Danyil Maiorov, https://www.facebook.com/maiorovdan.
- 13. Facebook page of Mariusz Patey, https://www.facebook.com/mariusz.patey.