Interdoc, short for International Documentation and Information Center, established in The Hague in February 1963, was a transnational “clearing house” for organizations engaged in anti-communist psychological warfare, with a predominant focus on finding ways how to hamstring “the continuing appeal of communist ideology, particularly among youth and intellectuals.”1 The organization served as a hub for a widespread network of nationally and internationally active anti-communist institutions in Europe, North America, and later increasingly in “Third World” countries.2
The documentation centre in The Hague contained a comprehensive index system, which also included references to material outside Interdoc, and its library disposed of a collection of periodicals, special reports, and documentation about affiliated anti-communist organizations.3
Although Interdoc had only a small permanent staff, presided over by a director and deputy director, it had an international board and advisory committee. Every country that participated in Interdoc had its own associated national research center, for example, Interdoc’s German branch was called “Association for the Study of Foreign Socio-Political Relations” (Verein zur Erforschung sozial-politischer Verhältnisse im Ausland).
The boards of these national centers included representatives from science, industry, press and armed forces, some of whom also sat on Interdoc’s international board and advisory committee. The necessary funds to run Interdoc were provided by the national centers, who had agreed to spend a part of their budget on this joint international effort. These funds were also used to bankroll Interdoc’s summits that were held twice a year.3
Following the division of Germany into four occupation zones in the aftermath of WWII, the Soviet Union, former ally of the Western forces in the fight against the Nazi regime, quickly became itself designated enemy number one. The “Iron Curtain,” a term that Winston Churchill coined in his famous 1949 speech, began to etch itself into the minds of people. Even with the emerging Russian strategy of a “peaceful coexistence” that followed Stalin’s death in 1953 a not yet consolidated “West” saw itself threatened by not only territorial encroachment, but also a Soviet cultural takeover in the form of communist ideology.
To defeat the “Red Menace” an unprecedented psychological warfare campaign was launched to scare the Western public away from anything smelling only remotely like communism, mostly by way of large-scale propaganda campaigns that crudely vilified the Soviet Union in a dehumanizing and racist way. While this strategy worked to cart a majority along, it was, however, not entirely successful, particularly among young intellectuals.
Thus, a growing number of “Western block” propagandists started to doubt the effectiveness of the prevalent “negative anti-communist” spin, and its black and white approach. A declassified CIA memo from 1965 describes such considerations as the backdrop to Interdoc’s foundation:3
It also became increasingly clear that a solution to the new challenge could not be found in a negative anti-Communism, but that a more positive anti-communism was required, which would involve a closer examination of the basic values of the West, and their dissemination in the Communist world and in the developing countries.
While various European intelligence services were already heavily involved in secret anti-communist activities, only a few international forums existed to exchange information on the subject. The popularity of communist thinking was a growing concern of many conservative Western-European leaders of the era, which, they feared, would pave the way of a cultural revolution. A Europe torn apart by animosities between former WWII enemies, especially between France and Germany, would only encourage such a scenario.
The re-establishment of inter-European communication was thus a necessary prerogative to any potential transnational anti-communist initiatives. One of the enablers of the “rapprochement,” the re-establishment of cordial relations between France and Germany, was the Bilderberg Group, founded with the blessing of the collaborationist4 Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands in 1954. Already during its second meeting in March 1955, the Bilderberg Group chose to discuss the “Communist influence in the West, European Communist parties and political, ideological and economic ripostes to the Red Menace” in Barbizon near Paris.56
Prince Bernhard’s affiliation with the Bilderberg Group seems to have been vital in the early stages of the foundation of Interdoc. For example, he hosted a meeting of “a number of distinguished industrialists” at Palace Soestdijk, in February 1962. The Dutch “Institute for the Study of Human Ecology” (Stichting voor ondersoek van ecologische vraagstukken, SOEV), a CIA psywar front organization, had pitched the plan for such as center. According to Giles-Smith, probably the most knowledgeable scholar when it comes to Interdoc,7
The companies that were most enthusiastic about SOEV’s proposal were Shell, Unilever, and the Netherlands Railways. SOEV also developed a close working relationship with the internal information service of the Dutch Air Force.
It is interesting to note that the March 1955 Bilderberg conference was held in Barbizon, the same venue as the seminal Interdoc group in 1961. Prince Bernhard’s role is indicative of the assistance given by the Bilderberg group, only recently created itself, to the fledging Interdoc organization.
These two meetings are also documented in aforementioned CIA memo from 1965:3
A meeting took place in the autumn of 1957 in the South of France between a French and a German group, composed of representatives of science, industry, press and the Armed Forces, who, à titre privé, wished to discuss East-West problems, especially in regard to the new Communist challenge: peaceful coexistence. In the autumn of 1958 a Dutch group of similar composition and with the same interests joined the others. During the following years a tendency became apparent in the discussions to aim at more concrete, practical points, in particular in regard to the increasing East-West confrontation.
An important impulse to the formation of Interdoc came from French SDECE’s Colonel Antoine Bonnemaison, who under the cover of a SDECE front group called the Centre de Recherches du Bien Politique was responsible for coordinating all psychological operations carried out by the Cinquieme Bureau.
David Teacher writes about Antoine Bonnemaison in his seminal book Rogue Agents: Habsburg, Pinay and the Private Cold War 1951-1991:9
From 1955 on, Bonnemaison began acting as organizing secretary for a series of informal meetings, held alternately in France and in Germany, which brought together top intelligence veterans from three countries: France, Germany and Holland. “The blend of ‘delegates’ (in 1959) was basically the same in all three (national) groups: intelligence, both civil and military; leading academics; non-academic political or economic specialists; one or two trusted politicians; leaders of industry; trade union leaders; and clerics of various denominations ... these meetings ... were very productive in terms of facts, background, analysis and intelligent discussion.”10
The idea of a covert European alliance to fight communism was discussed in 1957, when a Franco-German group met in the South of France to discuss what steps could be taken to combat Communism. Their first decision was to reinforce their network; by the following year, the circle had widened to include representatives from Holland, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium.
A further expansion to include the UK came in 1959 following Bonnemaison’s chance encounter the previous year with the then Editor of the Economist Foreign Report, a man who would later become undoubtedly the most prominent propagandist for several Western intelligence services and the key character in the UK counter-subversion complex - Brian Crozier. … Having met Crozier in 1958, Antoine Bonnemaison invited Crozier as the first ever British visitor to attend one of his colloques, held this time near Frankfurt. There were three delegations present from France, Germany and the Netherlands, and each included senior intelligence officers. The French delegation was led by General Jean Olie, de Gaulle’s Chief of General Staff, seconded by SDECE’s Colonel Bonnemaison.12
Also the German delegation at those preliminary meetings was riddled with intelligence figures, amongst them Hermann Foertsch, a senior deputy to Reinhard Gehlen, founder of Germany’s post-war intelligence service, the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND). In a document from August 1959 Foertsch stated that the funding for such an organization should “ideally (...) be arranged through the authority of one or more ‘major promoters’ (a personality of the Catholic Church, a prominent Jewish personality, not an American).”13
Next to Foertsch, the delegation included two other BND employees, Professor Hans Lades and Dr. C. D. Kernig, both hired for their expertise in East German communism, and involved with a front group along the lines of Bonnemaison’s Centre de Recherches du Bien Politique, the “German Union for East-West Relations” (Deutsche Vereinigung für Ost-West Beziehungen). According to Crozier it was based in Munich, “appropriately close to the headquarters of the BND at Pullach.”14 Teacher writes about the German Interdoc affiliate:15
Although nothing else is known of this Vereinigung quoted by Crozier, Professor Hans Lades and Dr. C. D. Kernig also belonged to another mysterious body, the Verein zur Erforschung sozial-politischer Verhältnisse im Ausland ("Association for the Study of Foreign Socio-political Relations"), a registered charity also conveniently based in Munich. Amongst the Verein’s members. Professor Lades and Dr. Kernig regularly attended Bonnemaison’s meetings whilst Dr. Norman von Grote would join them as the third German founding member of INTERDOC in 1963. Von Grote had been an officer in Wehrmacht FHO (Fremde Heere Ost - Eastern Front intelligence)16 with special responsibility for liaison with Russian General Vlassov and his army of Nazi collaborators, the NTS. After the war, the NTS would be the parent body for the IGfM.17 FHO was commanded from 1st April, 1942 onwards by General Gehlen; it was Gehlen himself who had adopted Vlassov and defended the idea of an anti-communist army under Vlassov against strong pressure from Himmler.18
Links to Gladio
The Dutch delegation to these preliminary meetings is of special interest, because here first links to Gladio appear:15
The Dutch delegation was represented by two top veterans from the Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst (BVD), the Dutch internal security service, Louis Einthoven and C. C. ‘Cees’ Van den Heuvel. Einthoven had been Chief Commissioner for Police in Rotterdam in the 1930s. After the war, he was appointed by General H. J. Kruls to head the Bureau Nationale Veiligheid, renamed the BVD in 1946; Einthoven would then serve as the BVD’s first director, retiring only in 1961. He played a key role in the Dutch Gladio component, Operaties 85 Inlichtingen (O&I - Operations and Intelligence), also founded in 1946 by General Kruls. Einthoven commanded the Operations Division of O&I which was in charge of preparing for armed resistance but was also crucially tasked with “sensitizing people to the danger of communism during times of peace.”
As for Van den Heuvel, he was a civil servant in the Dutch Interior Ministry and a former head of the Research Department of the BVD, in which capacity he liaised closely with O&I. Having played “a heroic role in the Dutch Resistance during the Nazi occupation,” Van den Heuvel was already well acquainted with the principles of stay-behind networks.
The attendees of these two preliminary meetings organized by Bonnemaison reflect Interdoc’s endeavor of being an interface between Dutch, German and French secret services in regards to psychological warfare operations, not so much against the Soviet Union, but agains the successes of communist ideology:
- Antoine Bonnemaison (fr); under the cover of a SDECE front group called the Centre de Recherches du Bien Politique, he is responsible for coordinating all psychological operations carried out by the Cinquieme Bureau until 1963
- Jean Olie (fr); de Gaulle's Chief of General Staff, seconded by SDECE's Colonel Bonnemaison
- Norman von Grote (de); former officer of the Foreign Armies East with special responsibility for liaison with Russian General Vlassov and his army of Nazi collaborators, the NTS
- Hermann Foertsch (de); senior deputy of Reinhard Gehlen, head of the German foreign secret service BND
- Hans Lades (de); “German Union for East-West Relations,” “Association for the Study of Foreign Socio-Political Relation”
- Dr. C. D. Kernig (de); “German Union for East-West Relations,” “Association for the Study of Foreign Socio-Political Relation”
- Louis Einthoven (nl); Veteran of the Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst (BVD); key role in the Dutch Gladio component, Operaties & Inlichtingen
- Cees Van den Heuvel (nl); former head of the Research Department of the Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst (BVD)
- Brian Crozier (UK); propagandist, intelligence agent.
Society for the Investigation for Human Ecology
Contacts with American intelligence was established via the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology (SIHE), founded by two professors from Cornell University’s Medical College in 1955, Harald Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle. Although appearing as legitimate research center, the Society received CIA-funds and shared its research with the agency, who considered and applied the results in their own psychological warfare projects, especially MKULTRA. The Society was also a conduit for funds destined for secret psychological warfare project such as Dr. Ewen Cameron’s (partly terminal) experiments at the psychiatric facility of McGill university.19
Cameron made extensive tests with electro shocks and drugs on psychiatric patient, a process he called “depatterning.” According to John D. Marks, who had written a book about those experiments:20
He [Cameron] postulated that after he produced “complete amnesia” in a subject, the person would eventually recover memory of his normal but not his schizophrenic behavior. Thus, Cameron claimed he could generate “differential amnesia.” Creating such a state in which a man who knew too much could be made to forget had long been a prime objective of the ARTICHOKE and MKULTRA programs.
Another objective was to create a “Manchurian candidate,” i.e. to “depattern” and then “repattern” a person, so he would become an “assassin whose mind was controlled by a hostile government.”21
The SIHE also cultivated regular contacts with likeminded institutes. In early 1959, a Dutch delegation, composed of the training leader of the Dutch secret service BVD, Cees van den Heuvel, and four other persons visited the United States to learn about the country’s psychological defense strategies against Soviet influence. The contact was established by CIA liaison John Gittinger, who put the head of the Dutch BVD, Louis Einthoven, in touch with the Society, which in turn provided the delegation’s travel contacts.
Scott-Smith describes the visit of the Dutch intelligence officers at the SIHE in his article Interdoc and West European Psychological Warfare: The American Connection as follows:22
Special attention was given to the vulnerabilities of Western “working classes, intellectuals, youth, and the military” to the Soviet cultural offensive under peaceful coexistence, with the goal being the “immunizing of our people against this inﬂuence – which is often very reﬁned – beginning with the removal of ignorance.” Included in the itinerary was a “special conference” on brainwashing held at the Society’s ofﬁce on Connecticut Avenue in Washington DC, involving various scientists connected with US Air Force research programs on POWs. The report made clear that attention for this subject was due to the fact that brainwashing in its narrow sense (as applied by Chinese and Russian communists to prisoners) is assumed to be related in some way or other to brainwashing in its wider sense (such as the political indoctrination of the Chinese people) and with brainwashing in its widest sense (such as the communist propaganda to the non-communist world).
The West’s political environment, from this perspective, was being inﬂuenced by communism – was “an object of active interest” – and it was necessary to reverse this trend by studying and applying the communist methods in reverse.
Brainwashing had potential if it could offer blueprints for the appliance of inﬂuence on a societal basis. The key was to link the micro and macro levels of analysis – to study the forces used to maintain the cohesion of communist societies from the perspective of the individual in a controlled environment. Thus the report promoted studying brainwashing techniques to enable “approaching the macro situation of communism in world politics from a micro investigation” involving “psychology and psychiatry,” both being cutting-edge ﬁelds in American positivist social science during the 1950s and early 1960s.
The group returned to the Netherlands convinced of the need to establish an institute for this purpose and for conducting “political education” on Western values and the communist threat via strategic channels: the media, trade unions, universities, churches, the armed forces. This Dutch initiative – the Stichting voor Onderzoek van Ecologische Vraagstukken (Foundation for the Investigation of Problems of Ecology), founded in April 1960 and run initially from van den Heuvel’s front room in The Hague – became the national base for the formation of the international Interdoc network three years later.
The Dutch stayed in contact with the SIHE’s executive director, James Monroe. Monroe visited the Netherlands in 1959 where he drew up plans for collaborations with the Dutch group and received a first batch of their contacts in Scandinavia. Eventually the contact faded with the departure of Monroe from the Society in January 1962, which had changed its name to Human Ecology Society in the meantime. According to Scott-Smith:23
Despite the auspicious beginnings in transatlantic contacts, it is noticeable that little came of it. (...) Before committing to Interdoc, during 1960–61 the Germans pushed for a psychological warfare apparatus within NATO to coordinate Western activities and prevent the Soviet Union beneﬁting from divisions in the alliance surrounding the Berlin crisis. The Americans, along with the British, refused to back the proposal, and as a result the Interdoc plan was moved wholly into the civilian sphere. But even there the hoped-for collaboration did not emerge. In a letter from Einthoven to Prince Bernhard from early 1962, the now retired head of the BVD stated that he had undertaken the task of establishing Interdoc due to requests from “French, German and American friends (Allen Dulles)” to make use of his remarkable array of contacts in both NATO and the neutrals (Sweden and Switzerland). But this did not translate into direct support from either the CIA or from the private sector. A primary reason for this was two major scandals that rocked the BND during 1961–1962. Heinz Felfe, a former SS ofﬁcer and member of Walter Schellenberg’s foreign intelligence section of the RHSA (Nazi Reich Security Central Ofﬁce) was recruited by the KGB in 1951. Soon afterwards he joined the counter-intelligence wing of Reinhard Gehlen’s BND, and over the next ten years he manoeuvred himself into a place of utmost conﬁdence next to Gehlen. Despite growing suspicions over the next decade, it took until the revelations of Polish intelligence defector Michal Goleniewski in 1961 to ﬁnally convince the CIA that Felfe was a traitor – and, in turn, convince Gehlen. Felfe’s arrest and interrogation during 1962 then coincided with a serious confrontation between the BND and the German Ministry of Defence, which ended up with Gehlen being summoned to Adenauer’s Chancellery in November for his alleged involvement in leaking information to Der Spiegel to undermine Franz Joseph Strauss. The combination of these two factors ensured that the BND looked like badly damaged goods, and it is not surprising there was hesitation on the part of the CIA at that time to undertake a new cooperative venture.
Interdoc was finally officially established in The Hague in February 1963 as a collaboration between French, West German and Dutch intelligence agencies and representatives of the private sector in Western Europe. Despite the all-European demeanor the operation was under Americans influence from the start, and increasingly so over time.
Already in 1963 Interdoc lost an important supporter. In early 1963, Charles de Gaulle terminated all psychological operations carried out by the Cinquieme Bureau under Antoine Bonnemaison, effectively excluding its leader from any further involvement in Interdoc. There were several facets to the French withdrawal of support:
- France under de Gaulle sought for a strategy of a “rapprochement” with Russia, a goal not shared with the Interdoc alliance partners. The involvement in an international anti-communist psychological warfare organization would not fit in such a diplomatic project.
- De Gaulle did not trust the affiliated countries’ military and intelligence agencies involved, who had oppositional views in regard to his course of suppressing Algerian independence endeavors.
France’s attempt of cutting the umbilical cord from American and European military influence and gaining full control over its own military affairs culminated in the expulsion of the NATO headquarters from Versailles in 1966 and the withdrawal of French troops from the alliance. This decision was only reverted 43 years later by Nicolas Sarkozy, in 2009.
Despite its official withdrawal of support, France nevertheless kept personal liaisons with Interdoc organizations.
Thus, from its inception in 1963 to 1971 Interdoc was mainly a German-Dutch collaboration, but important contacts existed to affiliated organizations in Britain, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and the United States.23
In 1965, Interdoc agreed to help the CIA to establish contacts in Sweden, Switzerland and Denmark. Van den Heuvel and the Dutch CIA liaison Hermann Mennes provided the CIA also with a complete list of names and addresses:3
Contacts in Sweden
1. Mr. Sten Palsson, Rabyvägen 15H, BOX 729, Land (INFORN)
2. Mr Ake Sparring, Ragnebergen 33, Vondelso/Stockholm (Institute of International Affairs)
3. Mr. B. Hagard, Danderyd (President of the Young Conservatives in Sweden)
4. Mr. B. Hüggman, Tornavägen, Lund
5. Mr. J. Rydström, Högbertstrasse 30 A, Stockholm (Jernkontorot)
Contacts in Switzerland
1. Dr. Peter Sager, Schweizerisches Ost-Institut, Jubiläumstrasse 41, Bern
2 . Mr .H. Graf, “Wahret die Freiheit”, Postfach, Zurich 34
Contacts in Denmark
1. Mr. E. N. Svendsen*, Jaegersborgvej 3, Kgs. (Friket Og Folkostyre)
2. Mr. B. Holmgaard, information, Kongensgade 40, Copenhagen
3. Mr. H. Jensen, Landesorganizationen Demokratisk Alliance
(*Office in Copenhagen: c/o Mr. F. Nielsen, Rosenvaengets Allé, Copenhagen)
The responsible CIA officer Gaither G. Stewart agreed with Mennes that Interdoc should do mailings of propaganda material to addresses the agency would furnish:3
I made arrangements with Mennes to do regular mailings from the Hague under the name of something like the Netherlands Literary Club. We will furnish addresses, titles, and a short letter to accompany each book. The mailings will be from a private address in the Hague.
Stewart’s liaison, the Dutchmen Hermann Mennes, who served as deputy to Interdoc’s director C. C. van den Heuvel, was another key figure in the organization during thee mid-1960s. Mennes was a member of the board of the National Union of Students and in charge of a training program for a select groups of students. There are only a few hints in the literature about the nature of these trainings. The declassified CIA memo from 1965 states:3
He (Mennes) was training them for the World Youth Festival which was to have taken place in Algiers this year; now he will continue to train them for the next youth festival. This will be interesting for us to follow up. We are establishing in indirect contact with an increasing number of student groups in many countries.
(a) The Netherlands section in Leiden of the International Student Travel Agency sponsors two trips a year to the Soviet Union with about 30 to 40 students each time.
(b) The student exchange sponsors various study trips to the Soviet Union. At the present time, a group of 60 economics students from the University of Rotterdam are participating in a three or four week study tour in Moscow. (They will be contacted upon their return.)
(c) There are meetings between Dutch and Soviet students at conferences in Western Europe.
(d). Various Soviet delegations go to Holland throughout the year.
Besides his student espionage operation, Mennes maintained contacts with Soviet experts, such as a3
Ukrainian named Kuschpeta who lectures at the University of Tilburg and with a certain Dutchman who resides at a monastery at Voorburg. The latter gentlemen trained at the Russicum in Rome. He Speaks Russian and travels frequently in the Soviet Union. He also in “in charge of” an estimated 200 Russian women who married Dutchmen and who presently live in Holland.
Stewart pointed out another important figure in the mainly conservative Christian Interdoc milieu:3
Mennes introduced me to Mr. J. R. G. Verreijdt who is the representative for Inter Press in the Hague. Inter Press, whose headquarters are in Rome, is run by a Dutchman, Dr. Hahn, and an Italian, Dr. Savio. Although it is not publicized, Inter Press in sponsored by the International Union of Christian Democrats. Its principle activities at the present time seem to be in Latin America. Their offices in the Hague, Rome and Santiago de Chile are connected by telex. Inter Press, Rome, telexes feature articles daily to its Santiago office, which in turn, sends the articles by wire service to some 300 leading Latin American news papers. The Santiago office sends background materials to the European branches. Mr. Verreijdt said that he was willing to take one of our feature articles each week and would distribute them through Inter Press to these same Latin American papers. This would mean a tremendous increase in our distribution;and all free of charge if this works out. In exchange for furnishing them with our articles, they will make available to us the background materials they receive from Latin America. Our articles will be airmailed to the Hague each Tuesday afternoon. They will be telexed from the Hague to Rome and from Rome to Santiago and should be received by the newspapers by Wednesday or Thursday of each week. We will forward the first feature articles on Wednesday, December 8.
In the late 1960s, growing suspicion among German social democrats (SPD) in regards to BND activities led to the sudden cancellation of Pullach’s support of Interdoc in the late 1970, yet private liaisons were still maintained, as in the French case.
Until 1986 Interdoc continued its activities as hub for projects mainly in the Netherlands, but also elsewhere in Europe.
- Interdoc, Van Stolkweg 10, 's Gravenhage, The Hague, Netherlands
- Verein zur Erforschung sozial-politischer Verhältnisse e.V., München, Germany
- Stichting voor ondersoek van ecologische vraagstukken, Den Haag
- Interdoc-U.K., London
- Notes on Communist and Communist-sponsored activities as reported by Communist Sources (weekly, also in French);
- Spiegel der kommunistischen wissenschaftlich-politischen Publizistik (monthly, also in English and in French);
- Religious life in Communist countries (monthly, also in German and French);
- Beitrage zur psychopolitischen Lage der europäischen Ostblockländer (quarterly, only in German);
- The activities of Communist World Organisations (quarterly, only in English);
- Interdoc Information Bulletin (quarterly, mainly English, partly German).
- Centro di Studi e Richerche sui Problemi Economico-Sociali (CESES); also in contact with the CIA3
- International Union of Christian Democrats
- Inter Press
- Union Mondiale des Européens
- National Union of Students of the Netherlands
- Netherlands Youth Association, the Dutch affiliate of WAY.
Known German Interdoc members
- Bob Hindersin in Hamburg
- N. von Grote in Munich
- Dr. Claus Kernig in Freiburg
- Hermann Foertsch
- Hans Lades
- Scott-Smith, Giles. “Confronting Peaceful Co-existence: Psychological Warfare and the Role of Interdoc, 1963–72.” Cold War History Vol. 7, No. 1, February 2007, pp. 19–43, https://www.academia.edu/1880720/Confronting_Peaceful_Coexistence_Psychological_Warfare_and_the_Role_of_Interdoc_1963-1972.
- Scott-Smith, Giles. “Psychological Warfare for the West: Interdoc, the West European Intelligence Services, and the International Student Movements of the 1960s.” In: Kathrin Fahlenbrach, Martin Klimke, & Joachim Scharloth (eds.). The Establishment Responds: Power and Protest during and after the Cold War (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).
- Scott-Smith, Giles. Western Anti-Communism and the Interdoc Network: Cold War Internationale (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).
- Van Dongen, Luc, Stéphanie Roulin, and Giles Scott-Smith, “Introduction.” In: Transnational Anticommunism and the Cold War: Agents, Activities, Networks (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
- 1. Giles Scott-Smith, “Interdoc and West European Psychological Warfare: The American Connection,” Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 26, Nos. 2–3, April–June 2011, 356-357.
- 2. Scott-Smith, “Interdoc,” 356.
- 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Gaither G. Stewart, “SUBJECT: My trip to the Hague, December 2-3, 1965,” declassified intelligence report, Central Intelligence Agency, December 17, 1965, https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/QKACTIVE%20%20%20VOL.%209%20%20%20%28CS%20FILE%20JAN.%201965-DEC.%201967%29_0014.pdf.
- 4. From Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands’ Wikipedia entry: “While at university, Bernhard joined the Nazi Party. He also enrolled in the Sturmabteilung (SA), which he left in December 1934 when he graduated and went to work for IG Farben. The Prince later denied that he had belonged to SA, to the Reiter-SS (SS Cavalry Corps), and to the NSKK, but these are well-documented memberships. … The Prince eventually went to work for the German chemical giant IG Farben in the early 1930s, then the world’s fourth-largest company. (It survives today as BASF, AGFA, and Bayer). He joined the statistics department of IG Farben’s Berlin N.W. 7 department, the key Nazi overseas espionage center (known as VOWI) that evolved into the economic intelligence arm of the Wehrmacht. He lodged with Count Pavel Kotzbue, an exiled Russian nobleman, and his wife Allene Tew, who was born in the United States. After training, Bernhard became secretary in 1935 to the board of directors at the Paris office.”From Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands’ Wikipedia entry: “While at university, Bernhard joined the Nazi Party. He also enrolled in the Sturmabteilung (SA), which he left in December 1934 when he graduated and went to work for IG Farben. The Prince later denied that he had belonged to SA, to the Reiter-SS (SS Cavalry Corps), and to the NSKK, but these are well-documented memberships. … The Prince eventually went to work for the German chemical giant IG Farben in the early 1930s, then the world’s fourth-largest company. (It survives today as BASF, AGFA, and Bayer). He joined the statistics department of IG Farben’s Berlin N.W. 7 department, the key Nazi overseas espionage center (known as VOWI) that evolved into the economic intelligence arm of the Wehrmacht. He lodged with Count Pavel Kotzbue, an exiled Russian nobleman, and his wife Allene Tew, who was born in the United States. After training, Bernhard became secretary in 1935 to the board of directors at the Paris office.”
- 5. David Teacher, Rogue Agents: Habsburg, Pinay and the Private Cold War 1951-1991, December 2008, 13, https://web.archive.org/web/20160410211757/https://archive.org/details/RogueAgents.
- 6. Luis M. González-Mata, Les vrais maitres du monde (Paris, Éditions Grasset & Fasquelle, 1979), 26.
- 7. Giles Scott-Smith, “Confronting Peaceful Co-existence: Psychological Warfare and the Role of Interdoc, 1963–72,” Cold War History Vol. 7, No. 1, February 2007, pp. 19–43, https://www.academia.edu/1880720/Confronting_Peaceful_Coexistence_Psychological_Warfare_and_the_Role_of_Interdoc_1963-1972.
- 8. Teacher, Rogue Agents, 187.
- 9. Teacher, Rogue Agents, 14.
- 10. Crozier, Free Agent, 32, quoted in Teacher, Rogue Agents, 14.
- 11. Teacher, Rogue Agents, 14.
- 12. Crozier, Free Agent, 29-31.
- 13. Scott-Smith, “Interdoc,” 357.
- 14. Crozier, Free Agent, 32.
- 15. a. b. Teacher, Rogue Agents, 15.
- 16. Out of the remnants of the leading echelon of the “Foreign Armies East,” their former head, Reinhard Gehlen, recruited the nucleus of Germany’s postwar foreign intelligence service, the Gehlen Org, predecessor to the current Bundesnachrichtendienst (“Federal Intelligence Agency”).
- 17. Robin Ramsay and Stephen Dorril, “Wilson, MI5 and the rise of Thatcher,” Lobster 11, April 1986, quoted in Teacher, Rogue Agents, 15.
- 18. Heinz Höhne and Hermann Zolling, The General was a spy (London: Pan, 1973), 33-36, quoted in Teacher, Rogue Agents, 15.
- 19. John Marks, The Search for the “Manchurian Candidate”: The CIA and Mind Control (London: Allen Lane, 1979), 32.
- 20. Marks, Manchurian Candidate, 133.
- 21. Marks, Manchurian Candidate, 9.
- 22. Scott-Smith, “Interdoc,” 362.
- 23. a. b. Scott-Smith, “Interdoc,” 364.