The Dignitatis Humanae Institute (DHI) is a "Catholic-fundamentalist think tank,"1 founded on 8 December 2008 by a group of British Catholics in Brussels, under the leadership of Benjamin Harnwell, and Nirj Deva.2 Harnwell, longtime member of the British Conservative Party, was at that time Chief of Staff to Deva, British Conservative MEP, and Sri Lankan business magnate.3 Deva is also the primary backer of the DHI's fascist cadre school in Trisulti, Italy, currently being established with the help of Steve Bannon, who is labelled a patron of the DHI.4
The establishment of the DHI coincided with the foundation of the European Parliament’s Working Group on Human Dignity (WGHD) on the same day, i.a. by former Irish MEP Gay Mitchell (Fine Gael), with Harnwell becoming Honorary Secretary.
Another section of the DHI is the International Committee on Human Dignity (ICHM), “the Institute’s most influential political arm,"5 of which Deva is currently president. The ICHM published the conservative manifesto Universal Declaration of Human Dignity,6 written by Harnwell, which formulates the ideological basis of the DHI.
The term “Human Dignity” reverberates the declaration Dignitatis humanae ("Dignity of Man"), which pope Paul VI. promulgated on 7 December 1965 in the course of the Second Vatican Council on Religious Freedom.
The complex, pseudo-legal declaration, which references documents such as the Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights, tries to link the concept of “human rights” with the term “human dignity." The latter entails, according to the declaration, that humans are “made in the image and likeness of God," and are thus sacred. Such sacredness would count for “every single human life from conception until natural death." In other words: abortions, or euthanasia would be not only sacrileges but offenses against human rights.
The DHI links into a vast network of national and international organizations, and lobby groups, which are commonly subsumed under the term “pro-life” campaigners. They are advocating various Catholic, and conservative objectives, such as making abortions and contraception illegal, bringing down the “gender ideology”, ostracizing homosexuality, and opposing divorce.
Under the catch phrase of “human dignity” the DHI, and other lobby organzations lead a legal war, aiming especially to make embryos legal entities. Some of these groups, such as ADF International7, and European Dignity Watch8 are very well connected within the European Parliament, and the European Commission.
In its 10 years of existence, the DHI could gather an illustrious group of ultra-orthodox Christian campaigners, many of them from the conservative wing of the Vatican. The DHI’s advisory board includes for example several cardinals, who are openly challenging pope Francis stance on marriage and sexuality.9
One of them is honorary president of the DHI, Cardinal Renato Raffaele Martino, who long advocated that “Catholics should not vote for politicians who support abortion."10 Until 2009, Martino was head of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, and since 2010 he is Grand Prior of the Order of Constantine.
In February 2018, the DHI announced that it had signed an "accord with the Italian Ministry of Culture to become the official leaseholder of the historic Abbey of Trisulti," an isolated monastery complex in the mountains of central Italy, which holds an ancient library of 38 0000 volumes.11 It “will be the home of a number of projects that underscore the fact that man is made in the image and likeness of God, and that recognition of the imago Dei is the cornerstone of the Judaeo-Christian foundations of Western Civilisation,”11 according to DHI head Benjamin Harnwell.
Below the profiles of some of the main actors in the DHI, as well as further details on its ties to other organizations:
Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke (*1948), an American cardinal prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, and leader of its conservative wing, is president of the DHI’s Advisory Council. Burke, a Breitbart contributor, is currently heading a vendetta against the Pope Francis, especially his apostolic exhortation Amor laetitia (The Joy of Love) from 2016.
The Washington Post calls Burke the “rebel prince” of the catholic church, who is “undermining Francis’s reformist, compassionate papacy, and gospel teaching […] using his position […] to legitimise extremist forces that want to bring down Western liberal democracy, Stephen K. Bannon-style.”9
Burke was prefect of the Vatican's highest court, the Apostolic Signatura from June 2008 until November 2014, when pope Francis removed Burke as head, and named him patron to a “largely ceremonial post” at the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM),1213 which he held until 2017.
On 21 Jan 2017, Burke met Matteo Salvini of Lega Nord.14 Shortly after, in early February 2017, Burke was sidelined as patron of the SMOM, and Pope Francis appointed Archbishop Giovanni Angelo Becciu as his special delegate to the order. On February 21, 2017, Albrecht von Boeselager, the order's Grand Chancellor, announced that Burke was officially suspended from the patronage.15
In September 2017, Burke was reappointed by Pope Francis as a member of the Apostolic Signatura, but only as adviser.16 Still, Burke remains one of Francis’ harshest critics. For example on a conference on 7 April 2018 in Rome, entitled “Catholic Church: Where are you heading?”, Burke was openly rallying for “limits to papal powers."17
The DHI websites features a site-wide banner with a quote by Steve Bannon: “[Harnwell’s] the smartest guy in Rome… [he’s] always a tough guy - he comes across as a monk, but he’s actually a very tough guy.”18
Breitbart contributor Harnwell was special advisor to Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe from 2002 to 2004. Later, until 2010 he became Chief of Staff to MEP Nirj Deva. During his political activity, he was an “active member of the British Conservative Party for over 15 years”. In 2010 he moved to Rome to direct the DHI.
“Benjamin identifies himself philosophically as an Austro-libertarian, co-founding (with Vincent de Roeck) the European Parliament’s Mises Circle, which exists to promote greater recognition of the Austrian School of Economics; he also co-founded the international Right Approach Group (with Patrick Barron), to explore free-market solutions to contemporary problems.”2
The Mises Circle can count well-known names amongst its patrons: Frits Bolkestein (nl), former EU Commissioner, Herman de Croo (be), former Belgian President of the Chamber of Representatives, Mart Laar (ee), former Prime Minister of Estonia, Earl of Stockton (uk), chairman of Macmillan Publishers, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff (de), deputy leader of ALDE, and honorary member Prince Philipp von und zu Liechtenstein (li)19.20
“Benjamin Harnwell, [is] also encouraging Benito Mussolini fan Matteo Salvini, of Italy’s Northern League, and Muslim-baiting far-right Catholic poster girl Marion Le Pen, the National Front “rising star” niece of party leader Marine Le Pen in France.”9
In 2016, Monsignor Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, bishop chancellor of the Pontifical Academies of Science and Social Sciences, appointed Harnwell as external counsellor.2
The DHI puts much emphasis on its connection to Steve Bannon, who is listed as “patron” of the organization. According to the Christian newspaper “Christ und Welt”, Bannon is aiming to unite the conservative forces inside the Vatican with the help of the DHI.21
“Stephen K. Bannon spoke with Ben Harnwell, from the Dignitatus Humanae Institute, at the Pontifica Universita in Rome, during events leading up to the canonization of Pope John Paul II and John XXIII. Harnwell said his institute has “worked on the front lines of the fight for Christian politicians to be publicly Christian.” He adds that the entire “Pontificate of John Paul made the fight that we’re currently working in possible. He armed us.”
He went on to say that the pro-life movement has never been as strong as it is today.”
In a January 2018 BBC interview, where Harnwell is introduced as a friend of Bannon, Harnwell talked of the role of Bannon in the Trump administration, and the reasons behind his demise. In regards to Bannon’s motives, Harnwell said, “I think as far as Steve’s concerned, he’s concentrating on helping the President from outside to fulfil the agenda, for which he was elected.”24
Bannon gave also a lecture one 27 June 2014 for the DHI in Rome via Skype.25
Luca Volonté, an anti-abortion and anti-LGBTQ activist, is chairman of the DHI, and CEO of the Novae Terrae Foundation, as well as member of the Board of Trustees of CitizenGo.26
He was formerly Italian MP (1996 to 2013), and President of the European People's Party at the Strasbourg-based Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly (PACE).
After in December 2016 a dossier by the European Stability Initiative was published, entitled “The European Swamp (Caviar Diplomacy Part 2) – Prosecutors, corruption and the Council of Europe,"27 a large-scale investigation into a multi-billion money laundering scheme hit off, where Luca Volonté was implicated.2829
Investigators said “they have uncovered 2.39 million Euro in payments to Volonté through British and offshore companies. […] The payments, prosecutors allege, were made in exchange for Volonté’s efforts to mute the European body’s criticism of Azerbaijan’s human rights record.”30
In September 2017 the Guardian ran a piece “UK at centre of secret $3bn Azerbaijani money laundering and lobbying scheme,"31 which reads:
“Azerbaijan’s ruling elite operated a secret $2.9bn scheme to pay prominent Europeans, buy luxury goods and launder money through a network of opaque British companies, an investigation by the Guardian reveals. Leaked data shows that the Azerbaijani leadership, accused of serial human rights abuses, systemic corruption and rigging elections, made more than 16,000 covert payments from 2012 to 2014. […] The leaked bank records show multiple payments to several former members of the Council of Europe’s parliamentary assembly, PACE. One is […] Italian former chair of the centre-right group in PACE, Luca Volontè.”
Parliamentary working groups
“The Institute is in the process of establishing parliamentary working groups on human dignity in legislatures worldwide.”32
The DHI runs currently one European, and three national parliamentary working groups: in the UK, Romania and Lithuania. Another working group was announced in the Italian Chamber of Deputies, but so far I could not identify it.32 The UK working group is called All-Party Parliamentary Group on Human Dignity, and is ”chaired by the veteran pro-life campaigner, Lord Alton of Liverpool. It was launched in 2010 by another pro-life activist, Dr. Alveda King, niece of the late Martin Luther King.”32
European anti-choice agenda
The call for “human dignity” resonates in other pro-life campaigns, such as “One Of Us - European Federation for Life and Human Dignity,"33 an anti-abortion lobby group, whose members include pro-life associations from almost all European countries.34 One of its most active supporters is Ignacio Arsuaga (see memo from 2 April 2018)35, whose CitizenGo project, apparently supported by Konstantin Malofeev, appears also in the member list of One of US, and is linked in the sidebar of the DHI website. Arsuaga says during an Arte documentary from 2017:
“One of Us was the beginning of a far-reaching lobby, which wants to exert influence in the European Union.”36
In 2013, One of Us was behind a petition in the European Parliament to cancel the EU’s support for birth control and abortions, especially in development countries. The petition received a record vote of over 1,7 million, and thus was reaching the threshold where the EU Parliament and Commission had to discuss the issue. When the EU denied the demand, in 2014 the initiators of the petition started a pro-life interest group within the European Parliament.
Sophia Kuby, who works for the lobby groups ADF International,37 and European Dignity Watch38, is an important actor of this interest group. European Dignity Watch issued an open letter to Jean-Claude Juncker in 2014 signed by Kuby, in which the DHI appears amongst the supporting organisations.39 This indicates that the DHI, most likely through its Working Group on Human Dignity (WGHD), is connected to the “pro-life” lobby on a European level.
MEP Sophie in ’t Veld, member of the Committee for the Rights of Women, described her contact with the lobby inside the European Parliament:
“I never use the expression “pro-life”. These people are anti-choice. I am for life and for free choice. They are permanently using terms such as “dignity” “justice”, “peace, “freedom”, “life”, “family”. It sounds great, like peace, happiness, and bliss, but that is not the case. These people take away all options from women. At times they even behave awfully. Extremely anti-democratic, and anti-pluralistic.”40
Neil Datta, Secretary General of the European Parliament Forum, has the following to say:
“They are using human rights for their purposes by interpreting its statutes to their advantage. They are doing this in several areas. They are for example trying to obtain a legal status for embryos, or the right of the father to have a say in case of an abortion. […] One of Us is only the visible side of the anti-choice movement, the politically correct one. But behind it there is a bigger, more militant group, with representatives from 30 to 40 countries.”41
The pro-life EU lobby is apparently very well organised, as internal documents show. Their meetings are strictly confidential. A document entitled “Restoring the Natural Order - Agenda for Europe” has leaked from their working group, and was outlined by a 2017 Arte documentary.42 “There is written i.a. that the Western civilisation will decline in 10 to 20 years, because of the harmful watering down of the term human rights.”43
The picture shows a screenshot from the document as shown in the documentary:
The “Budapest Family Summit” on 26-27 May 2017, organized by the World Congress of Families, brought together many of the key actors of the pro-life lobby group. Its opening speech was delivered by Victor Orbán. Other speakers included Benjamin Harnwell, Alveda C. King, Natalya Yakunina, Ignacio Arsuaga, Sophia Kuby, and Luca Volonté.44
In April 2019, MSNBC published a video report that gives an insight into Bannon's current activity in the Vatican. According to Bannon, the Vatican experiences a financial crisis, which he wants to help to resolve. The report also sheds more light on the activities in Trisulti, which Bannon wants to turn into an elite training camp of "Gladiators."45
But after in early May 2019 the Italian newspaper La Repubblica reported46 that a letter used as a guarantee for the lease was forged, Italy’s cultural heritage ministry announced47 it would revoke the lease.4849 According to an article by The Economist50:
The DHI took over the monastery following a competitive tender. Accompanying the institute’s bid was a business plan and a letter endorsing it, apparently provided by the Gibraltar branch of a Danish financial institution, Jyske Bank. But on May 7th La Repubblica, an Italian daily, reported a statement by Jyske Bank declaring the letter to be fraudulent. The managing director of Jyske Bank in Gibraltar, Lars Jensen, confirms the statement. 'It is a fraudulent letter, put together by I don’t know who,' he told The Economist this week. The signature purported to be that of 'a lady who hasn’t been in the bank for years. Her role was that of an assistant and in that letter she’s a director or something like that. So it is obviously fraudulent,' he said.
The DHI's plans have also led to local initiatives to stop the project. Already in March 2019 around 200 protesters from the Italian village of Collepardo embarked on a protest march, holding posters saying "Stop Bannon - Free Europe" and "#BannOFF."51 A heroine in the fight against Bannon's project is 64-year old local activist Letizia Roccasecca, who stated in an interview with the Financial Times that for her "Trisulti is becoming the centre of the worldwide struggle against fascism and nationalism."52
In summer of 2019 Bannon's relation with the arch-reactionary Cardinal Raymond Burke, a former DHI supporter and anti-Francis proponent himself, soured. According to an interview with the New York Times, Burke stated in that regard53:
Douthat: What about your own relationship to Steve Bannon, which has been a source of great media fascination?
Burke: I came to know Steve Bannon through my involvement with the Dignitatis Humanae Institute, an association founded to assist European parliamentarians in following the demands of the moral law. Eventually, Bannon also became involved in its work. I met with him on three or four occasions, as I recall, to discuss Catholic teaching with him. From my point of view, they were conversations of a priest with a member of the lay faithful, which concerned the moral duty of a Catholic in public life. When the media presented more and more my relationship as my cooperation in his particular political program, I had to clarify the matter.
The final straw was the announcement of his plan to make a movie of the book by Frédéric Martel, “In the Closet of the Vatican,” a project [concerned with closeted homosexuality among Catholic clergy] with which I was in complete and clear disagreement. It was necessary for me to make clear that I have never been part of Bannon’s political organization. In my relationship with him, I have tried to fulfill my mission, as a priest, to teach the faith and morals for the common good.
Raymond Burke's letter to Steve Bannon from June 25, 2019.
In May 2020 it was reported that the legal difficulties in regard to the lease agreement of the Trisulti monastery were overcome.54 "An administrative court in Lazio has overturned a decision by the Ministry of Culture to revoke the 19-year lease handed to the group seeking to implement President Donald Trump’s former chief strategist’s plans," according to the catholic The Tablet. "Benjamin Harnwell, who runs the institute, said that following the decision the restoration of the monastery will continue, while registration for online courses, run from the United States, will open on 1 June."55
- 1. "CDU-Politiker distanziert sich von katholischem Institut,” Radio Vatikan, February 23, 2017, https://web.archive.org/web/20171110115856/http://de.radiovaticana.va/news/2017/02/23/cdu-politiker_distanziert_sich_von_katholischem_institut/1294208.
- 2. a. b. c. “Benjamin Harnwell,” Dignitatis Humanae Institute, http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/index.php/about-us/benjamin-harnwell/.
- 3. Nirj Deva, “Declaration of Members’ Financial Interests, European Parliament, April 3, 2014, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/ep-dif/rev/4556_05-07-2012_Rev2.pdf.
- 4. Andy Gorman, "The new academies for Europe’s far right," The New Statesman, May 20, 2019, https://www.newstatesman.com/world/2019/05/new-academies-europe-s-far-right.
- 5. “FAQ,” Dignitatis Humanae Institute, http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/index.php/about-us/faq/.
- 6. “Universal Declaration of Human Dignity,” Dignitatis Humanae Institute, http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/documents/UNIVERSAL-DECLARATION-OF-HUMAN-DIGNITY.pdf.
- 7. ADF International, https://adfinternational.org/.
- 8. European Dignity Watch, http://www.europeandignitywatch.org/.
- 9. a. b. c. Emma-Kate Symons, “How Pope Francis can cleanse the far-right rot from the Catholic Church,” The Washington Post, February 9, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/02/09/how-pope-francis-can-cleanse-the-far-right-rot-from-the-catholic-church/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.8139eb235cd4.
- 10. “Cardinal Martino joins Priests for Life, says Catholics cannot vote pro-abortion,” Catholic News Agency, September 8, 2004, https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/cardinal_martino_joins_priests_for_life_says_catholics_cannot_vote_proabortion.
- 11. a. b. “Abbey of 6th Century Marian Apparition Now Under DHI Management,” Dignitatis Humanae Institute, February 14, 2018, http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/index.php/abbey-of-6th-century-marian-apparition-now-under-dhi-management/.
- 12. Francis X. Rocca, “Pope removes Cardinal Burke from Vatican post,” National Catholic Reporter, November 10, 2014, https://www.ncronline.org/news/vatican/pope-removes-cardinal-burke-vatican-post.
- 13. “Burke was reduced to a ceremonial patron role at the Knights of Malta after a power struggle at the ancient chivalric order, won by the pope last month (Jan 2017), following a spat over its humanitarian wing’s alleged distribution of condoms. Losing the leadership battle and prestige at the secretive society headquartered in Rome — Francis is appointing his own special delegate above Burke — was seen as a papal rap on the knuckles for the cardinal leading the charge against Francis’s writings on communion for divorcees.” Emma-Kate Symons, “How Pope Francis can cleanse the far-right rot from the Catholic Church,” The Washington Post, February 9, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/02/09/how-pope-francis-can-cleanse-the-far-right-rot-from-the-catholic-church/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.8139eb235cd4.
- 14. Stephanie Kirchgaessner, “US cardinal Raymond Burke stokes papal tensions by meeting nationalist in Rome,” The Guardian, February 5, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/05/us-cardinal-raymond-burke-stokes-papal-tensions-by-meeting-nationalist-in-rome.
- 15. Claire Chretien, "Cardinal Burke is ‘de facto’ suspended, claims Knights of Malta condom promoter,” Life Site, February 21, 2017, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/reinstated-knights-of-malta-condom-promoter-cardinal-burke-de-facto-suspend.a-condom-promoter-cardinal-burke-de-facto-suspend.
- 16. “Cardinal Burke back at Vatican high court - but as adviser,” Fox News, September 30, 2017, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2017/09/30/cardinal-burke-back-at-vatican-high-court-but-as-adviser.html.
- 17. Diane Montagna, “FULL TEXT: Cardinal Burke’s talk on the limits of papal power,” Life Site, Friday 13, 2018, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/full-text-cardinal-burkes-address.
- 18. Dignitatis Humanae Institute, http://www.dignitatishumanae.com.
- 19. H.S.H. Prince Philipp von und zu Liechtenstein https://www.lgt.li/shared/.content/publikationen/$verwaltung_publikationen/cv/cv_s_d_prinz_philipp_von_und_zu_liechtenstein_en.pdf.
- 20. http://www.vonmisesinstitute-europe.eu/ludwig-von-mises-institute-europe/.
- 21. https://web.archive.org/web/20171110115856/http://de.radiovaticana.va/news/2017/02/23/cdu-politiker_distanziert_sich_von_katholischem_institut/1294208.
- 22. http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/?s=bannon.
- 23. http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/index.php/pope-john-paul-ii-armed-us-ben-harnwell/.
- 24. http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/index.php/benjamin-harnwell-bannon-is-concentrating-on-helping-trump-fulfill-his-agenda/.
- 25. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FWXScQaZ2uI.
- 26. https://www.apfn.com.pt/congressofamiliasnumerosas2014.pt/congresso/Luca_Volonte.pdf.
- 27. https://www.esiweb.org/index.php?lang=en&id=156&document_ID=181.
- 28. https://www.buzzfeed.com/lesterfeder/this-anti-abortion-leader-is-charged-with-laundering-money?utm_term=.gfA1RWY4yk#.xbYDybPYJ3.
- 29. https://www.tagesspiegel.de/themen/agenda/korruptionsvorwuerfe-im-europarat-die-spur-des-geldes/19544662.html.
- 30. https://www.occrp.org/en/investigations/6301-businessman-suspected-in-italian-bribery-case-linked-to-azerbaijan-s-first-family.
- 31. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/04/uk-at-centre-of-secret-3bn-azerbaijani-money-laundering-and-lobbying-scheme.
- 32. a. b. c. http://www.dignitatishumanae.com/index.php/parliamentary-work/working-groups/.
- 33. https://oneofus.eu/.
- 34. https://oneofus.eu/about-us/members/.
- 35. Alexandra Jousset & Andrea Rawlins-Gaston. “Avortement, les croisés contre-attaquent”. Documentary Movie. Arte France, 2017. Timestamp: 15:23. https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/075221-000-A/avortement-les-croises-contre-attaquent/.
- 36. Alexandra Jousset & Andrea Rawlins-Gaston. [17:48].
- 37. https://adfinternational.org/advocacy-team-and-advisory-council/sophia-kuby-bio/.
- 38. http://www.europeandignitywatch.org/.
- 39. http://www.ordoiuris.pl/sites/default/files/inline-files/Open%20Letter_Juncker_ETD_full_0.pdf.
- 40. Alexandra Jousset & Andrea Rawlins-Gaston. [16:24].
- 41. Ibid. [20:00], [20:55].
- 42. There is another, if obscure, reference to that document in an online bibliography provided by a Romanian Pro-Life association: “38. *** - Restoring the natural order. An agenda for Europe (2014)”. https://provitabucuresti.ro/docs/biblio/biblioteca.carte.provita.bucuresti.pdf.
- 43. Alexandra Jousset & Andrea Rawlins-Gaston. [23:00].
- 44. https://www.budapestfamilysummit.com/en/may-26-friday/.
- 45. "The ultra-conservative crusade against Pope Francis," MSNBC, April 14, 2019, https://www.msnbc.com/on-assignment/watch/the-ultra-conservative-crusade-against-pope-francis-1493172291746.
- 46. Andrea Palladino, "Bannon, carte false per la scuola dei sovranisti," La Repubblica, May 6, 2019, https://rep.repubblica.it/pwa/generale/2019/05/06/news/bannon_carte_false_per_la_scuola_dei_sovranisti-225620595/.
- 47. "CERTOSA TRISULTI. MIBAC AVVIA ITER PER REVOCA CONCESSIONE A DIGNITATIS HUMANAE INSTITUTE," Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali, May 31, 2019, http://www.beniculturali.it/mibac/export/MiBAC/sito-MiBAC/Contenuti/MibacUnif/Comunicati/visualizza_asset.html_1234378838.html.
- 48. Andrea Palladino, "Certosa di Trisulti, il ministero dice no alla scuola sovranista di Bannon," La Stampa, May 31, 2019, https://www.lastampa.it/2019/05/31/italia/certosa-di-trisulti-il-ministero-dice-no-alla-scuola-sovranista-di-bannon-enmVOA4U77l7Y99GwyOJAP/pagina.html.
- 49. Luiz Romero, "Italy is evicting Steve Bannon from the medieval monastery he planned to turn into a far-right training academy," Quartz, May 31, 2019, https://qz.com/1632565/italy-to-evict-steve-bannon-from-his-far-right-training-academy/.
- 50. "Steve Bannon’s monastic academy denies monkey business," The Economist, May 22, 2019, https://www.economist.com/europe/2019/05/22/steve-bannons-monastic-academy-denies-monkey-business.
- 51. Giada Zampano, "Protesters march on Italian monastery where Steve Bannon plans to train nationalist leaders," The Telegraph, March 18, 2019, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/03/18/protesters-march-italian-monastery-steve-bannon-plans-train/.
- 52. Hannah Robert, "Steve Bannon’s alt-right academy — and one village’s fight to stop it," Financial Times, May 2, 2019, https://www.ft.com/content/d38ffde2-6bf6-11e9-a9a5-351eeaef6d84.
- 53. Ross Douthat, "Cardinal Burke: ‘I’m Called the Enemy of the Pope, Which I Am Not,’" New York Times, November 9, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/09/opinion/cardinal-burke-douthat.html.
- 54. "Steve Bannon wins battle to set up right-wing political academy in Italy," NBC News, May 27, 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/steve-bannon-wins-battle-set-right-wing-political-academy-italy-n1215341.
- 55. Christopher Lamb, "Bannon plan for Trisulti monastery resurrected," The Tablet, May 27, 2020, https://www.thetablet.co.uk/news/12983/bannon-plan-for-trisulti-monastery-resurrected.