By FOIA Research
on September 16, 2020 - Last updated: November 7, 2023

Kevin C. Ruffner - Forging an Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND, 1945-49 - A Documentary History (1999)

This declassified two-volume history, Forging and Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND, 1945-49, edited by the CIA historian Kevin C. Ruffner, was originally published in 1999 for agency-internal use only, and released in May 2002 in the course of the The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG). The publication was "presented in 1999 by CIA Deputy Director for Operations Jack Downing to the German intelligence service (Bundesnachrichtendienst) in remembrance of 'the new and close ties' formed during post-war Germany to mark the fiftieth year of CIA-West German cooperation." To the publication belong 97 key documents from various agencies, which all have been published by the U.S. National Archives in 2005.1

  • 1Tamara E. Feinstein, "The CIA and Nazi War Criminals: National Security Archive Posts Secret CIA History Released Under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 146, February 4, 2005,